Ation of hMSCs. The hMSCs formed calcium 1516647 nodus after 12 day culture (A). The hMSCs (2006) stained immunohistochemically positive for ALP (B), osteocalcin (E) and collagen type I (H) compared to non-induced cells (C, F, and I). The ALP activity (D) of hMSCs and osteocalcin concentration (G) in the culture medium were significant higher in induced group than that in control group (non-induced cells). *p , 0. 01, compared with control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053697.gMicroscopy of cell-scaffold constructsIn group A (dynamic seeding followed by dynamic culture), after culture for 8 h, a small number of cells were observed on the surface of the pores in the scaffolds. Then, the cells gradually increased in number and became uniformly distributed on the surface of the pores. After culturing for 5 days, the cells started to Lixisenatide price produce ECM, the cells and ECM were both uniformly distributed (Fig. 2 A). In group B (hydrogel-assisted seeding followed by static culture), the cell-laden gel filled most pores in scaffold after seeding immediately and the resulting constructs remained almost unchanged during subsequent culture (Fig. 2 B). In group C (static seeding followed by static culture, control group), the seeding suspension rapidly penetrated the DBM scaffolds after seeding and reached the bottom of the wells. Two hours after seeding, a large number of spindle-like cells appeared at the well bottom. After 5 days of subsequent culture, the cells in the scaffolds started to produce extracellular matrix (ECM) resembling spider webs. The cells and ECM were distributed non-uniformly (Fig. 2 C) at this time point. In group D (hydrogel-assisted seeding followed by dynamic culture), the seeded cells were carried by the fibrin gel and filled most pores in the scaffolds after seeding. The cells were identified by their low refractivity (Fig. 2 D). A small amount of fibrin gel was found on the bottom of the wells. The cell number increased with culture time, and was higher than group C at the same time points.The number of attached cells and density of ECM Indolactam V site fibers in the interior of the scaffold after 14-day culture are significantly different among four groups. The number of attached cells and density of ECM fibers in group B is most and the cells and ECM were uniformly distributed in the scaffold (Fig. 3 B). The cells in the scaffolds and ECM fibers presented in group C are minimal and non-uniformly scattered in the pores of the scaffolds (Fig. 3 C). Group D (Fig. 15755315 3 D) had more cells attached to the pore and ECM than group A (Fig. 3A).Seeding efficiencyThe seeding efficiency was 32.1060.72 in group A and 25.2461.56 in group C, compared with 82.1461.09 in group B and 81.5361.37 in group D. Groups B and D were similar (p = 0.396), and the differences between all other group pairs were highly significant (all p,0.01).Cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiationIn group A, the cell number remained stable during the first 3 days, followed by a continuous increase till day 14. In group B, the cell number was stable during the first 2 days, then started to increase, and attained a plateau on day 12. In group C (control group), the cell number (Fig. 4A) remained stable during the first 4 days in culture, then started to increase, and plateaued on day 8.Effects of Initial Cell and Hydrodynamic CultureSEM of cell-scaffold constructsSEM revealed similar results to optical microscopy. The number of cells and density of ECM fibers in group B (Fig. 5B).Ation of hMSCs. The hMSCs formed calcium 1516647 nodus after 12 day culture (A). The hMSCs (2006) stained immunohistochemically positive for ALP (B), osteocalcin (E) and collagen type I (H) compared to non-induced cells (C, F, and I). The ALP activity (D) of hMSCs and osteocalcin concentration (G) in the culture medium were significant higher in induced group than that in control group (non-induced cells). *p , 0. 01, compared with control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053697.gMicroscopy of cell-scaffold constructsIn group A (dynamic seeding followed by dynamic culture), after culture for 8 h, a small number of cells were observed on the surface of the pores in the scaffolds. Then, the cells gradually increased in number and became uniformly distributed on the surface of the pores. After culturing for 5 days, the cells started to produce ECM, the cells and ECM were both uniformly distributed (Fig. 2 A). In group B (hydrogel-assisted seeding followed by static culture), the cell-laden gel filled most pores in scaffold after seeding immediately and the resulting constructs remained almost unchanged during subsequent culture (Fig. 2 B). In group C (static seeding followed by static culture, control group), the seeding suspension rapidly penetrated the DBM scaffolds after seeding and reached the bottom of the wells. Two hours after seeding, a large number of spindle-like cells appeared at the well bottom. After 5 days of subsequent culture, the cells in the scaffolds started to produce extracellular matrix (ECM) resembling spider webs. The cells and ECM were distributed non-uniformly (Fig. 2 C) at this time point. In group D (hydrogel-assisted seeding followed by dynamic culture), the seeded cells were carried by the fibrin gel and filled most pores in the scaffolds after seeding. The cells were identified by their low refractivity (Fig. 2 D). A small amount of fibrin gel was found on the bottom of the wells. The cell number increased with culture time, and was higher than group C at the same time points.The number of attached cells and density of ECM fibers in the interior of the scaffold after 14-day culture are significantly different among four groups. The number of attached cells and density of ECM fibers in group B is most and the cells and ECM were uniformly distributed in the scaffold (Fig. 3 B). The cells in the scaffolds and ECM fibers presented in group C are minimal and non-uniformly scattered in the pores of the scaffolds (Fig. 3 C). Group D (Fig. 15755315 3 D) had more cells attached to the pore and ECM than group A (Fig. 3A).Seeding efficiencyThe seeding efficiency was 32.1060.72 in group A and 25.2461.56 in group C, compared with 82.1461.09 in group B and 81.5361.37 in group D. Groups B and D were similar (p = 0.396), and the differences between all other group pairs were highly significant (all p,0.01).Cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiationIn group A, the cell number remained stable during the first 3 days, followed by a continuous increase till day 14. In group B, the cell number was stable during the first 2 days, then started to increase, and attained a plateau on day 12. In group C (control group), the cell number (Fig. 4A) remained stable during the first 4 days in culture, then started to increase, and plateaued on day 8.Effects of Initial Cell and Hydrodynamic CultureSEM of cell-scaffold constructsSEM revealed similar results to optical microscopy. The number of cells and density of ECM fibers in group B (Fig. 5B).