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Le clonus, truncal ataxia, diffuse kinetic tremors Hyperreflexia, sustained ankle clonus, truncal and appendicular ataxia,mild parkinsonism Lower extremity hyperreflexia, sustained ankle clonus, lower extremity spasticity, truncal ataxia; subjective hearing loss Lower extremity hyperreflexia, sustained ankle clonus; severe hip flexor and extensor weakness Normal exam at 2 and 11 month evaluations Normal exam at 2 and 11 month evaluations Normal exam at 2 and 11 CSF: WBC 1 cell/mm3, protein 20 mg/dL, glucose 52 mg/dL month evaluations MRI: moderate generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy At 1 month evaluation: clinical status unchanged Normal exam at 2 and 11 12926553 month evaluations Normal exam at 2 and 11 month evaluations Normal exam at 1 month evaluation Normal exam at 1 month evaluationFFever, neck and back 14 pain, loose stools Fever, headache, abdominal pain, dizziness HeadacheFFMFever, myalgias, back NK pain, headache, “difficulty walking” Fever, backache Fever 3519M FFFever, headache, myalgias, abdominal pain, joint painFFever, chills, Oltipraz general 21 body pain, “difficulty walking”CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid. WBC: White blood cell count. NK: Not known. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046099.tNeurologic Illness Assoc with Typhoid Feversites within the nervous system. Many patients presented with neurologic findings in the absence of encephalopathy or other alteration in mental status, indicating that typhoid may produce focal, as well as generalized, neurologic dysfunction. With few exceptions, the neurologic findings in these subjects resolved over time, sometimes within weeks of acute illness, and long-term or recurrent neurologic sequelae were largely absent among a subset of persons we were able to assess in extended follow-up. Notably, we did not observe some of the other neurologic manifestations that have been frequently mentioned in the setting of typhoid fever, such as acute psychosis [6,25], acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy [15,30], or focal cortical signs [14,15,16]. The reason for the high proportion of cases with neurologic illness during this outbreak is unclear, but there are several possibilities. Surveillance bias is possible; early surveillance and case detection efforts focused on those persons hospitalized with neurologic features. Following recognition of typhoid as the cause of the outbreak, more persons with features typical of typhoid fever, including abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal 1516647 symptoms, were detected. The involvement of neurologists in the outbreak investigation possibly led to detection of neurologic features that might not be typically assessed or noted by other clinicians. Neurologic manifestations of typhoid have been described as a late manifestation of illness [5,31,32], and the median interval between symptom onset and documentation of neurologic signs in our patients was 12 days. Several factors, including 4 IBP web delayed presentation to clinical care and ineffective antimicrobial treatment early in the outbreak because of multidrug resistance of the causative Salmonella Typhi strain [18] may have led to a prolonged course of illness early in the outbreak, resulting in a greater prevalence of neurologic signs. Importantly, following implementation of early diagnostic capabilities and appropriate definitive antimicrobial treatment of typhoid fever with ciprofloxacin, the number of persons presenting with neurologic illness appeared to decrease, suggesting that prompt treatment may avert the ons.Le clonus, truncal ataxia, diffuse kinetic tremors Hyperreflexia, sustained ankle clonus, truncal and appendicular ataxia,mild parkinsonism Lower extremity hyperreflexia, sustained ankle clonus, lower extremity spasticity, truncal ataxia; subjective hearing loss Lower extremity hyperreflexia, sustained ankle clonus; severe hip flexor and extensor weakness Normal exam at 2 and 11 month evaluations Normal exam at 2 and 11 month evaluations Normal exam at 2 and 11 CSF: WBC 1 cell/mm3, protein 20 mg/dL, glucose 52 mg/dL month evaluations MRI: moderate generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy At 1 month evaluation: clinical status unchanged Normal exam at 2 and 11 12926553 month evaluations Normal exam at 2 and 11 month evaluations Normal exam at 1 month evaluation Normal exam at 1 month evaluationFFever, neck and back 14 pain, loose stools Fever, headache, abdominal pain, dizziness HeadacheFFMFever, myalgias, back NK pain, headache, “difficulty walking” Fever, backache Fever 3519M FFFever, headache, myalgias, abdominal pain, joint painFFever, chills, general 21 body pain, “difficulty walking”CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid. WBC: White blood cell count. NK: Not known. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046099.tNeurologic Illness Assoc with Typhoid Feversites within the nervous system. Many patients presented with neurologic findings in the absence of encephalopathy or other alteration in mental status, indicating that typhoid may produce focal, as well as generalized, neurologic dysfunction. With few exceptions, the neurologic findings in these subjects resolved over time, sometimes within weeks of acute illness, and long-term or recurrent neurologic sequelae were largely absent among a subset of persons we were able to assess in extended follow-up. Notably, we did not observe some of the other neurologic manifestations that have been frequently mentioned in the setting of typhoid fever, such as acute psychosis [6,25], acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy [15,30], or focal cortical signs [14,15,16]. The reason for the high proportion of cases with neurologic illness during this outbreak is unclear, but there are several possibilities. Surveillance bias is possible; early surveillance and case detection efforts focused on those persons hospitalized with neurologic features. Following recognition of typhoid as the cause of the outbreak, more persons with features typical of typhoid fever, including abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal 1516647 symptoms, were detected. The involvement of neurologists in the outbreak investigation possibly led to detection of neurologic features that might not be typically assessed or noted by other clinicians. Neurologic manifestations of typhoid have been described as a late manifestation of illness [5,31,32], and the median interval between symptom onset and documentation of neurologic signs in our patients was 12 days. Several factors, including delayed presentation to clinical care and ineffective antimicrobial treatment early in the outbreak because of multidrug resistance of the causative Salmonella Typhi strain [18] may have led to a prolonged course of illness early in the outbreak, resulting in a greater prevalence of neurologic signs. Importantly, following implementation of early diagnostic capabilities and appropriate definitive antimicrobial treatment of typhoid fever with ciprofloxacin, the number of persons presenting with neurologic illness appeared to decrease, suggesting that prompt treatment may avert the ons.

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Author: haoyuan2014