Share this post on:

Trypan blue exclusion (F). Cell numbers from at least 10 fields (A) and 60 fields (F) for each group were counted. Values are mean 6 SEM (*, P,0.05, by Student’s t test). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058441.gBMP4 signaling at the dorsal root ganglion is able to induce axon regeneration in an animal model of spinal injury [32]. The actions of BMP4 are, nevertheless, context-dependent, as manipulation of the BMP pathway locally at injury sites affects astrogliosis [33], and may inhibit axon regeneration [34].Regulation of Schwann cell-derived BMPExtensive cell death occurs in mature motor neurons only when they are deprived of both muscles and Schwann cells by ventral root avulsion [35]. This indicates that Schwann cells are at least as important as the target muscles for motor neuron survival. Our studies imply that BMP4 can also derive from Schwann cells. In comparison to injured nerves, relatively higher levels of BMP4 mRNA and protein are present in MedChemExpress Z-360 healthy nerves (Fig. 4 and 5), suggesting that Schwann cells could use BMP4 to communicate with motor neurons on a day-to-day basis. Muscle-derived BMP4, in contrast, is up-regulated following nerve damage, pointing to a possible role as a specialized injury factor that may be responsible for axonal regeneration (discussed above). The potential of Schwann cell-derived BMP4 as a day-to-day regulator is analogous to the observed in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). In adult rats, CNTF is normally expressed at high levels in Schwann cells, but is reduced dramatically after nerve damage [24]. Mice and humans with mutations of CNTF display a progressive loss of motor neurons, and may have a higher risk of developing more severe motor neuron disease [36,37]. These studies together support the hypothesis that CNTF and BMP4 act as critical modifiers for motor neuron disease. In fact, recent studies lend additional support to our view, demonstrating that dysregulation of BMP signaling could be one of the causes of axonopathy in human hereditary spastic paraplegias [38].also includes elevated glutamate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of a subset of patients [40]. It is known that glutamate excitotoxicity induces an acute morphological change and is followed by a massive cell death at the later stages [41]. The protective effects of BMP4 seen during both glutamate exposure and recovery periods in this study may provide for a better intervention for treating motor neuron and other neurodegenerative diseases in the future. In summary, our data support a model that peripheral cells may use BMP4 to communicate with motor neurons. The extent to which peripherally-derived BMP4 affects motor neurons during normal and pathological physiology is not fully understood. Here, we provide some evidence showing that BMP4 may be involved in the survival regulation of motor neurons. Future studies will utilize animal 58-49-1 models where BMP4 and BMPRII can be specifically deleted in each cell type. Such experiments will help to further delineate the actions of BMP4 in the neuromuscular system.Materials and Methods AnimalsThe National Chengchi University’s Animal Ethics Committee approved all experiments. C57Bl6 mice were bred and maintained in the Modular Animal Caging SystemH (Alternative Design) and their food sterilized by gamma irradiation. The room had a 12 h light/12 h dark phase, with the dark phase beginning at 8 pm.Isolation of motor neuron RNAMotor neuron mRNA was isolated using laser capture microdissection as.Trypan blue exclusion (F). Cell numbers from at least 10 fields (A) and 60 fields (F) for each group were counted. Values are mean 6 SEM (*, P,0.05, by Student’s t test). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058441.gBMP4 signaling at the dorsal root ganglion is able to induce axon regeneration in an animal model of spinal injury [32]. The actions of BMP4 are, nevertheless, context-dependent, as manipulation of the BMP pathway locally at injury sites affects astrogliosis [33], and may inhibit axon regeneration [34].Regulation of Schwann cell-derived BMPExtensive cell death occurs in mature motor neurons only when they are deprived of both muscles and Schwann cells by ventral root avulsion [35]. This indicates that Schwann cells are at least as important as the target muscles for motor neuron survival. Our studies imply that BMP4 can also derive from Schwann cells. In comparison to injured nerves, relatively higher levels of BMP4 mRNA and protein are present in healthy nerves (Fig. 4 and 5), suggesting that Schwann cells could use BMP4 to communicate with motor neurons on a day-to-day basis. Muscle-derived BMP4, in contrast, is up-regulated following nerve damage, pointing to a possible role as a specialized injury factor that may be responsible for axonal regeneration (discussed above). The potential of Schwann cell-derived BMP4 as a day-to-day regulator is analogous to the observed in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). In adult rats, CNTF is normally expressed at high levels in Schwann cells, but is reduced dramatically after nerve damage [24]. Mice and humans with mutations of CNTF display a progressive loss of motor neurons, and may have a higher risk of developing more severe motor neuron disease [36,37]. These studies together support the hypothesis that CNTF and BMP4 act as critical modifiers for motor neuron disease. In fact, recent studies lend additional support to our view, demonstrating that dysregulation of BMP signaling could be one of the causes of axonopathy in human hereditary spastic paraplegias [38].also includes elevated glutamate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of a subset of patients [40]. It is known that glutamate excitotoxicity induces an acute morphological change and is followed by a massive cell death at the later stages [41]. The protective effects of BMP4 seen during both glutamate exposure and recovery periods in this study may provide for a better intervention for treating motor neuron and other neurodegenerative diseases in the future. In summary, our data support a model that peripheral cells may use BMP4 to communicate with motor neurons. The extent to which peripherally-derived BMP4 affects motor neurons during normal and pathological physiology is not fully understood. Here, we provide some evidence showing that BMP4 may be involved in the survival regulation of motor neurons. Future studies will utilize animal models where BMP4 and BMPRII can be specifically deleted in each cell type. Such experiments will help to further delineate the actions of BMP4 in the neuromuscular system.Materials and Methods AnimalsThe National Chengchi University’s Animal Ethics Committee approved all experiments. C57Bl6 mice were bred and maintained in the Modular Animal Caging SystemH (Alternative Design) and their food sterilized by gamma irradiation. The room had a 12 h light/12 h dark phase, with the dark phase beginning at 8 pm.Isolation of motor neuron RNAMotor neuron mRNA was isolated using laser capture microdissection as.

Share this post on:

Author: haoyuan2014