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Lung cancer
Ols: LH PM. Wrote the paper: NAW CDC CJF.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, causing more than one million deaths worldwide [1]. Despite advances in early detection and standard treatment, lung cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Therefore, prevention and treatment of lung cancer are the focus of intensive current research [2]. CDA-2 (cell differentiation agent 2) is a urinary preparation that isolated from healthy human urine in China. It is 1676428 a novel multifunctional drug that is useful for both the prevention and treatment of several tumors, including leukemia, breast cancer, liver cancer, and pheochromocytoma, in preclinical investigations [3?]. However, the mechanisms of tumor inhibitory action of CDA-2 are far from clear, and especially there was no report on lung cancer. CDA-2 contains multiple active components, including phenylacetylglutamine (PG) (41 ), benzoyl glycocoll (35 ), peptides (MW 400?800) (17 ), 4-OH-phenylacetic acid (6 ), and 5-OH-indoleacetic acid (1 ), which with different mechanisms of anticancer [5]. Although tumor inhibition may be attributed to these components, PG is likely to be a major tumorinhibitory component [3]. Phase I/II/III clinical trials of CDA-2 have been completed in China in 2003. In August 2004, the State Drug Administration (SDA) of China approved the use of CDA-2 as an anticancer drug in solid tumors. Although CDA-2 was suggested to contribute to tumor inhibition through the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-c (PPARc) and repression of PI3/Akt signaling pathway in tumor cells, the tumor-inhibiting effect of CDA-2 was so far mainly demonstrated in cancer cells and its action in tumor microenvironments, especially to immune/inflammatory cells in tumor stroma, has not been critically evaluated [6,7]. NF-kB is a key coordinator of inflammatory and immune response and has recently been found to play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis of a number of cancers including lung or colon carcinoma [8,9]. It is noteworthy that the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines have been linked to carcinogenic processes in humans and mice, and are MK8931 price regulated by the NF-kB pathway. For example, NF-kB-driven cytokine production by myeloid cells (e.g., mature macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils) such as TNF-a and IL-6 are required for lung tumor growth [9]. In a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer (CAC),CDA-2 Inhibits Lung Cancer DevelopmentIKKb was deleted in myeloid cells (leading to decreased NF-kB activity), tumor size was considerably smaller compared to controls and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFa, IL6, and IL-1, was also markedly reduced [10]. Thus in myeloid cells, NF-kB activation promotes tumor growth. This effect is mainly due to enhanced tumor cell proliferation via the production of TNFa, IL-6, and other cytokines that are regulated by the NF-kB pathway in myeloid cells [10,11]. Here, we report our recent work concerning the tumor suppression and the molecular mechanisms of CDA-2 and its main constituent, PG, to lung cancer. We used experimental CB5083 murine lung cancer models in which CDA-2 and PG reduces lung tumor growth, and demonstrated that NF-kB inactivation in myeloid cells is responsible for CDA-2-induced tumor regression. We found that the inhibition of TLR-2 signaling is a key mechanism of CDA-2-induced NF-kB inactivation. Our results suggest a novel theory for cancer therapy.Lung cancer
Ols: LH PM. Wrote the paper: NAW CDC CJF.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, causing more than one million deaths worldwide [1]. Despite advances in early detection and standard treatment, lung cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Therefore, prevention and treatment of lung cancer are the focus of intensive current research [2]. CDA-2 (cell differentiation agent 2) is a urinary preparation that isolated from healthy human urine in China. It is 1676428 a novel multifunctional drug that is useful for both the prevention and treatment of several tumors, including leukemia, breast cancer, liver cancer, and pheochromocytoma, in preclinical investigations [3?]. However, the mechanisms of tumor inhibitory action of CDA-2 are far from clear, and especially there was no report on lung cancer. CDA-2 contains multiple active components, including phenylacetylglutamine (PG) (41 ), benzoyl glycocoll (35 ), peptides (MW 400?800) (17 ), 4-OH-phenylacetic acid (6 ), and 5-OH-indoleacetic acid (1 ), which with different mechanisms of anticancer [5]. Although tumor inhibition may be attributed to these components, PG is likely to be a major tumorinhibitory component [3]. Phase I/II/III clinical trials of CDA-2 have been completed in China in 2003. In August 2004, the State Drug Administration (SDA) of China approved the use of CDA-2 as an anticancer drug in solid tumors. Although CDA-2 was suggested to contribute to tumor inhibition through the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-c (PPARc) and repression of PI3/Akt signaling pathway in tumor cells, the tumor-inhibiting effect of CDA-2 was so far mainly demonstrated in cancer cells and its action in tumor microenvironments, especially to immune/inflammatory cells in tumor stroma, has not been critically evaluated [6,7]. NF-kB is a key coordinator of inflammatory and immune response and has recently been found to play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis of a number of cancers including lung or colon carcinoma [8,9]. It is noteworthy that the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines have been linked to carcinogenic processes in humans and mice, and are regulated by the NF-kB pathway. For example, NF-kB-driven cytokine production by myeloid cells (e.g., mature macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils) such as TNF-a and IL-6 are required for lung tumor growth [9]. In a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer (CAC),CDA-2 Inhibits Lung Cancer DevelopmentIKKb was deleted in myeloid cells (leading to decreased NF-kB activity), tumor size was considerably smaller compared to controls and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFa, IL6, and IL-1, was also markedly reduced [10]. Thus in myeloid cells, NF-kB activation promotes tumor growth. This effect is mainly due to enhanced tumor cell proliferation via the production of TNFa, IL-6, and other cytokines that are regulated by the NF-kB pathway in myeloid cells [10,11]. Here, we report our recent work concerning the tumor suppression and the molecular mechanisms of CDA-2 and its main constituent, PG, to lung cancer. We used experimental murine lung cancer models in which CDA-2 and PG reduces lung tumor growth, and demonstrated that NF-kB inactivation in myeloid cells is responsible for CDA-2-induced tumor regression. We found that the inhibition of TLR-2 signaling is a key mechanism of CDA-2-induced NF-kB inactivation. Our results suggest a novel theory for cancer therapy.

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Author: haoyuan2014