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Male animals (4 months of age).Preparation of Frozen Sections for HistologyMice were euthanized by cervical dislocation and their eyes were enucleated. The eyes were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS for 1 hr, after which the cornea was dissected and the lens was removed. The eye cups were then fixed in 4 PFA in PBS for an additional hour, washed in PBS, and then placed in 15 sucrose for 1 hr followed by 30 sucrose overnight. The fixed eyes were then embedded in Tissue-Tek OCT (Optimal Cutting Temperature) compound (Sakura Finetek, Torrance, CA, USA) for 1 hr and frozen on dry ice. The eye cups were serially dissected into 16 mm sagittal sections, using a cryostat at 220uC, and then mounted on slides. The mounted sections were then used for histological examination as outlined below.Western Blot (WB) AnalysisMice were euthanized by cervical dislocation and their retinas were rapidly excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The retinas were then homogenized in 200 ml 10 mM Tris HCl pH 7.6, which contained NaCl 0.15 M, Triton 1 , Deoxicholic acid 0.5 , SDS 0.1 PMSF 0.3 mM, DTT 0.1 mM, Sodium Orto Vanadat 0.2 mM as well as Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Calbiochem). The homogenates were then aliquoted and stored at ?0uC. The samples were boiled for 10 min prior to gel electrophoresis, after which the electrophoresis 16985061 and immunoblot assays were performed utilizing the following antibodies: Rabbit anti-Synaptophysin 1:5000 (Santa Cruz), mouse anti-VGluT1 1:100 (Millipore), mouse anti-VGaT 1:1000 (Millipore), goat anti- apoE 1:10000 (Millipore), rabbit H decreasing inflammatorycytokines has been reported [13]. In our study, by using anti-PSD-95 1:500 (abcam), rabbit antiHematoxylin and Eosin StainingThe slides were first incubated for 8 min in Hematoxylin (Sigma), washed with water and then with 1 HCl in 70 ETOH to remove excess dye. They were then incubated for 7 min in 1 Eosin (Sigma), washed in running tap water, and mounted withApoE4 Induces Retinal ImpairmentsGephyrin 1:1000 (abcam) and mouse anti-GAPDH 1:1000 (abcam). Protein concentration was determined utilizing the BCA protein assay kit (Pierce). The immunoblot bands were visualized utilizing the ECL chemiluminescent substrate (Pierce), after which their intensity was quantified 23148522 using EZQuantGel software (EZQuant, Tel Aviv, Israel). GAPDH levels were employed as gel loading controls and the results are presented relative to the apoE3 mice.Electroretinography (ERG)Recordings were conducted in a shielded room isolated from light and electrical noise. Animals were dark adapted overnight and their [DTrp6]-LH-RH chemical information pupils were dilated with tropicamide 0.5 15 minutes before recording. Animals were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (16 mg/kg). To maintain a normal body temperature at 37uC, a heating table was used during anesthesia. To improve conduction, the recorded eyes were kept moist with a drop of hydroxymethylcellulose (1.4 ). Signals were recorded using a gold loop wire. Subcutaneous needles served as reference and ground electrodes, and were placed at the middle of the forehead and in the base of the tail, respectively. Both eyes were recorded at a random order Impedance was kept under 7 KV. All recordings were done using Handheld Multi-species Electroretinography system (HMsERG, Ocuscience, Missouri, USA), with a bandpass of 0.3?00 Hz. Intensity-response curves were recorded using 13 steps of increasing flash intensity (0.00003, 0.0001, 0.0003, 0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 25 cd*s/m2). At the firs.Male animals (4 months of age).Preparation of Frozen Sections for HistologyMice were euthanized by cervical dislocation and their eyes were enucleated. The eyes were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS for 1 hr, after which the cornea was dissected and the lens was removed. The eye cups were then fixed in 4 PFA in PBS for an additional hour, washed in PBS, and then placed in 15 sucrose for 1 hr followed by 30 sucrose overnight. The fixed eyes were then embedded in Tissue-Tek OCT (Optimal Cutting Temperature) compound (Sakura Finetek, Torrance, CA, USA) for 1 hr and frozen on dry ice. The eye cups were serially dissected into 16 mm sagittal sections, using a cryostat at 220uC, and then mounted on slides. The mounted sections were then used for histological examination as outlined below.Western Blot (WB) AnalysisMice were euthanized by cervical dislocation and their retinas were rapidly excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The retinas were then homogenized in 200 ml 10 mM Tris HCl pH 7.6, which contained NaCl 0.15 M, Triton 1 , Deoxicholic acid 0.5 , SDS 0.1 PMSF 0.3 mM, DTT 0.1 mM, Sodium Orto Vanadat 0.2 mM as well as Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Calbiochem). The homogenates were then aliquoted and stored at ?0uC. The samples were boiled for 10 min prior to gel electrophoresis, after which the electrophoresis 16985061 and immunoblot assays were performed utilizing the following antibodies: Rabbit anti-Synaptophysin 1:5000 (Santa Cruz), mouse anti-VGluT1 1:100 (Millipore), mouse anti-VGaT 1:1000 (Millipore), goat anti- apoE 1:10000 (Millipore), rabbit anti-PSD-95 1:500 (abcam), rabbit antiHematoxylin and Eosin StainingThe slides were first incubated for 8 min in Hematoxylin (Sigma), washed with water and then with 1 HCl in 70 ETOH to remove excess dye. They were then incubated for 7 min in 1 Eosin (Sigma), washed in running tap water, and mounted withApoE4 Induces Retinal ImpairmentsGephyrin 1:1000 (abcam) and mouse anti-GAPDH 1:1000 (abcam). Protein concentration was determined utilizing the BCA protein assay kit (Pierce). The immunoblot bands were visualized utilizing the ECL chemiluminescent substrate (Pierce), after which their intensity was quantified 23148522 using EZQuantGel software (EZQuant, Tel Aviv, Israel). GAPDH levels were employed as gel loading controls and the results are presented relative to the apoE3 mice.Electroretinography (ERG)Recordings were conducted in a shielded room isolated from light and electrical noise. Animals were dark adapted overnight and their pupils were dilated with tropicamide 0.5 15 minutes before recording. Animals were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (16 mg/kg). To maintain a normal body temperature at 37uC, a heating table was used during anesthesia. To improve conduction, the recorded eyes were kept moist with a drop of hydroxymethylcellulose (1.4 ). Signals were recorded using a gold loop wire. Subcutaneous needles served as reference and ground electrodes, and were placed at the middle of the forehead and in the base of the tail, respectively. Both eyes were recorded at a random order Impedance was kept under 7 KV. All recordings were done using Handheld Multi-species Electroretinography system (HMsERG, Ocuscience, Missouri, USA), with a bandpass of 0.3?00 Hz. Intensity-response curves were recorded using 13 steps of increasing flash intensity (0.00003, 0.0001, 0.0003, 0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 25 cd*s/m2). At the firs.

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Author: haoyuan2014