Arity search was conducted against NCBI non-redundant protein (nr) database and

Arity search was conducted against NCBI non-redundant protein (nr) database and Swiss-Prot protein database using BLASTX algorithm with an E-value threshold of 1025. By this approach, out of 116,885 unigenes, 30,427 genes (26.03 of all distinct sequences) returned an above cut-off BLAST result (Table S1). Because of the relatively short length of distinct gene sequences and lacking genome information in O. formosanus, most of the 86,459 assembled sequences could not be matched to known genes (73.97 ). Figure 3 indicates that the NT 157 chemical information percentage of matched sequences in nr databases increased as assembled sequences got longer. Specifically, an 87.77 of match efficiency was observed for sequences longer than 2,000 bp, whereas the match efficiency decreased to 39.67 for those ranging from 500 to 1,000 bp andTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteFigure 1. Length distribution of Odontotermes formosanus contigs. Histogram presentation of sequence-length distribution for significant matches that was found. The x-axis indicates sequence sizes from 200 nt to .3000 nt. The y-axis indicates the number of contigs 1081537 for every given size. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gS2). These annotations provide a valuable resource for investigating specific processes, structures, functions, and pathways in caste differentiation.Protein Coding Region Prediction (CDS)To further analyze unigene function at the protein level, we predicted the protein coding region (CDS) of all unigenes. First, we matched unigene sequences against protein databases by usingBLASTX (E-value,0.00001) in the order: nr-Swissprot-KEGGCOG. Unigene sequences with hits in a database will not be included in the next round of search against another database. These BLAST results were used as information to extract CDS from unigene sequences and translate them into peptide sequences. In addition, BLAST results information is also used to train ESTScan [28,29]. CDS of unigenes with no hit on BLAST search were predicted by ESTScan and then translated purchase Madecassoside intoFigure 2. Length distribution of Odontotermes formosanus unigenes. Histogram presentation of sequence-length distribution for significant matches that was found. The x-axis indicates sequence sizes from 200 nt to .3000 nt. The y-axis indicates the number of uingenes for every given size. The results of sequence-length matches (with a cut-off E-value of 1.0E-5) in the nr databases are greater among the longer assembled sequences. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteTable 1. Summary of the head transcriptome of Odontotermes formosanus.Total raw reads Total clean reads Total clean nucleotides (nt) GC percentage Total number of contigs Mean length of contigs Total number of unigenes Mean length of unigenes Distinct clusters Distinct singletons Q20 percentage doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.t57,271,634 53,477,764 4,812,998,760 42.80 221,728 302 bp 116,885 536 bp 9,040 107,845 98.09most abundant type of repeat motif was dinucleotide (39.66 ), followed by trinucleotide (38.88 ), tetranucleotide (16.57 ), pentanucleotide (3.30 ), and hexanucleotide (1.59 ) repeat units (Table 2). The frequencies of EST-SSRs with different numbers of tandem repeats were calculated and shown in Table 2. The SSRs with six tandem repeats (21.14 ) were the most common, followed by five tandem repeats (20.42 ), seven tandem repeats (17.66 ), and four tandem repeats (11.59 ). The SSRs predicted in this study could lay a platform for.Arity search was conducted against NCBI non-redundant protein (nr) database and Swiss-Prot protein database using BLASTX algorithm with an E-value threshold of 1025. By this approach, out of 116,885 unigenes, 30,427 genes (26.03 of all distinct sequences) returned an above cut-off BLAST result (Table S1). Because of the relatively short length of distinct gene sequences and lacking genome information in O. formosanus, most of the 86,459 assembled sequences could not be matched to known genes (73.97 ). Figure 3 indicates that the percentage of matched sequences in nr databases increased as assembled sequences got longer. Specifically, an 87.77 of match efficiency was observed for sequences longer than 2,000 bp, whereas the match efficiency decreased to 39.67 for those ranging from 500 to 1,000 bp andTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteFigure 1. Length distribution of Odontotermes formosanus contigs. Histogram presentation of sequence-length distribution for significant matches that was found. The x-axis indicates sequence sizes from 200 nt to .3000 nt. The y-axis indicates the number of contigs 1081537 for every given size. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gS2). These annotations provide a valuable resource for investigating specific processes, structures, functions, and pathways in caste differentiation.Protein Coding Region Prediction (CDS)To further analyze unigene function at the protein level, we predicted the protein coding region (CDS) of all unigenes. First, we matched unigene sequences against protein databases by usingBLASTX (E-value,0.00001) in the order: nr-Swissprot-KEGGCOG. Unigene sequences with hits in a database will not be included in the next round of search against another database. These BLAST results were used as information to extract CDS from unigene sequences and translate them into peptide sequences. In addition, BLAST results information is also used to train ESTScan [28,29]. CDS of unigenes with no hit on BLAST search were predicted by ESTScan and then translated intoFigure 2. Length distribution of Odontotermes formosanus unigenes. Histogram presentation of sequence-length distribution for significant matches that was found. The x-axis indicates sequence sizes from 200 nt to .3000 nt. The y-axis indicates the number of uingenes for every given size. The results of sequence-length matches (with a cut-off E-value of 1.0E-5) in the nr databases are greater among the longer assembled sequences. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteTable 1. Summary of the head transcriptome of Odontotermes formosanus.Total raw reads Total clean reads Total clean nucleotides (nt) GC percentage Total number of contigs Mean length of contigs Total number of unigenes Mean length of unigenes Distinct clusters Distinct singletons Q20 percentage doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.t57,271,634 53,477,764 4,812,998,760 42.80 221,728 302 bp 116,885 536 bp 9,040 107,845 98.09most abundant type of repeat motif was dinucleotide (39.66 ), followed by trinucleotide (38.88 ), tetranucleotide (16.57 ), pentanucleotide (3.30 ), and hexanucleotide (1.59 ) repeat units (Table 2). The frequencies of EST-SSRs with different numbers of tandem repeats were calculated and shown in Table 2. The SSRs with six tandem repeats (21.14 ) were the most common, followed by five tandem repeats (20.42 ), seven tandem repeats (17.66 ), and four tandem repeats (11.59 ). The SSRs predicted in this study could lay a platform for.