With the estimate by Sage et al. [16]. The other assumption of

With the estimate by Sage et al. [16]. The other assumption of this estimate was that no reversals from C4 to C3 were allowed. Predominance of C4 gains over reversals to C3 is supported by both empirical data and theoretical work [49].Tests for positive selectionLikelihood ratio tests (LRTs) for variation in dN/dS ratios and for positive selection [33] were applied to the dataset of rbcL purchase TA02 sequences from 179 C3 and C4 Amaranthaceae species. LRTs that were run using two different initial dN/dS values (0.1 and 1676428 0.4) to test for suboptimal local peaks produced identical results. LRTs for positive selection [33] showed that the models assuming positive selection (M2a and M8) fit the data better than the nested models without positive selection (M1a and M8a; p-value ,0.00001;Rubisco Evolution in C4 EudicotsTable 2. Characteristics of amino-acid replacements under positive selection in the C4 lineages of Amaranthaceae.AA No.aAA changes `C3’R`C4’Type of changesbDHcDPdDVeSAf ( )DGg (kJ/mol)RFPS ( ) hC3/ C4 species iLocation of residueStructural motifs ?within 5 AInteractionsj281A MR RS IHN R UP HN R HN22.6 2.1.1 20.0.4 3.0.00 8.DS (210.6) S (21.3)2.7 19.2.1/34.5 0.0/16.Helix 4 Strand FHelices 4, 5 Strand E; Helices F,DD IDAmino acid (AA) numbering is based on the spinach sequence after [63]. Side chain type changes. Types abbreviations: H ?hydrophobic; N ?nonpolar aliphatic; P ?polar uncharged; U ?hydrophilic (after [64]). Hydropathicity difference [65]. d Polarity difference [66]. e van der Waals volume difference [67]. f Solvent accessibility calculated using the spinach structure (pdb file 1RBO) by CUPSAT [44]. g Overall stability of the protein predicted using the spinach structure (pdb file 1RBO) by CUPSAT [44]. DS ?destabilizing, S ?stabilizing. h RFPS ?relative frequency of the particular residue to be under positive selection in C3 plants. Data from 112 rbcL datasets with detected positive selection from [6]. i Percentage of C3 and C4 species that have `C4′ amino acid among the 95 C3 species and 84 C4 species of Amaranthaceae analysed. j ?CP21 interactions in which the selected residues and/or residues within 5 A of them are involved. ID ?intradimer interactions; DD ?dimer-dimer interactions (after [63]). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052974.tb caalternative amino acids in the analyzed dataset, while residues 32 and 439 had three and residue 443 had four alternative amino acids. Residue 145 is involved in dimer-dimer interactions, residue 225 is involved in interactions with small subunit, while residue 262 is involved in both [8]. C4 photosynthesis has increased the availability of CO2 for Rubisco in numerous independently evolved lineages of C4 plants, including Amaranthaceae, driving selection for less specific but faster enzymes which have both higher KM(CO2) and kcat values [3,5,23]. In the present study, we found that model A assuming positive selection on C4 branches provided a significantly better fit to the analysed Amaranthaceae dataset than the null model without selection (Table 1). We found no positive selection on branches which lead to C4 clades of Amaranthaceae, but we found positive selection specific for all C4 branches including branches which lead to C4 clades and branches within C4 clades (Table 1). This may be an argument in support of the hypothesis that C3 ancestors of C4 species, C3 4 intermediates and C4 species at the dawn of their origin have Rubisco with C3 kinetics, but once C4 pump is fully functional it creates a s.With the estimate by Sage et al. [16]. The other assumption of this estimate was that no reversals from C4 to C3 were allowed. Predominance of C4 gains over reversals to C3 is supported by both empirical data and theoretical work [49].Tests for positive selectionLikelihood ratio tests (LRTs) for variation in dN/dS ratios and for positive selection [33] were applied to the dataset of rbcL sequences from 179 C3 and C4 Amaranthaceae species. LRTs that were run using two different initial dN/dS values (0.1 and 1676428 0.4) to test for suboptimal local peaks produced identical results. LRTs for positive selection [33] showed that the models assuming positive selection (M2a and M8) fit the data better than the nested models without positive selection (M1a and M8a; p-value ,0.00001;Rubisco Evolution in C4 EudicotsTable 2. Characteristics of amino-acid replacements under positive selection in the C4 lineages of Amaranthaceae.AA No.aAA changes `C3’R`C4’Type of changesbDHcDPdDVeSAf ( )DGg (kJ/mol)RFPS ( ) hC3/ C4 species iLocation of residueStructural motifs ?within 5 AInteractionsj281A MR RS IHN R UP HN R HN22.6 2.1.1 20.0.4 3.0.00 8.DS (210.6) S (21.3)2.7 19.2.1/34.5 0.0/16.Helix 4 Strand FHelices 4, 5 Strand E; Helices F,DD IDAmino acid (AA) numbering is based on the spinach sequence after [63]. Side chain type changes. Types abbreviations: H ?hydrophobic; N ?nonpolar aliphatic; P ?polar uncharged; U ?hydrophilic (after [64]). Hydropathicity difference [65]. d Polarity difference [66]. e van der Waals volume difference [67]. f Solvent accessibility calculated using the spinach structure (pdb file 1RBO) by CUPSAT [44]. g Overall stability of the protein predicted using the spinach structure (pdb file 1RBO) by CUPSAT [44]. DS ?destabilizing, S ?stabilizing. h RFPS ?relative frequency of the particular residue to be under positive selection in C3 plants. Data from 112 rbcL datasets with detected positive selection from [6]. i Percentage of C3 and C4 species that have `C4′ amino acid among the 95 C3 species and 84 C4 species of Amaranthaceae analysed. j ?Interactions in which the selected residues and/or residues within 5 A of them are involved. ID ?intradimer interactions; DD ?dimer-dimer interactions (after [63]). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052974.tb caalternative amino acids in the analyzed dataset, while residues 32 and 439 had three and residue 443 had four alternative amino acids. Residue 145 is involved in dimer-dimer interactions, residue 225 is involved in interactions with small subunit, while residue 262 is involved in both [8]. C4 photosynthesis has increased the availability of CO2 for Rubisco in numerous independently evolved lineages of C4 plants, including Amaranthaceae, driving selection for less specific but faster enzymes which have both higher KM(CO2) and kcat values [3,5,23]. In the present study, we found that model A assuming positive selection on C4 branches provided a significantly better fit to the analysed Amaranthaceae dataset than the null model without selection (Table 1). We found no positive selection on branches which lead to C4 clades of Amaranthaceae, but we found positive selection specific for all C4 branches including branches which lead to C4 clades and branches within C4 clades (Table 1). This may be an argument in support of the hypothesis that C3 ancestors of C4 species, C3 4 intermediates and C4 species at the dawn of their origin have Rubisco with C3 kinetics, but once C4 pump is fully functional it creates a s.