IomarkerProteomics is the most commonly used technology for the identification of

IomarkerProteomics is the most commonly used technology for the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. The protein expression profiles of normal cells undergo distinct changes during malignant transformation, which may potentially provide appropriate biomarkers [7]. In CC, the bile drainage proteins directly secreted/shed by tumor cells may accumulate to higher concentrations in bile than serum, and may therefore be easier to identify in bile [8,9]. Although a few studies have attempted to perform large-scale identification of differently expressed bile proteins in CC [8,10?5], most of this research has focused on improvements in proteomic methodologies, or extension of the human bile proteomic profile in single or manipulus patients. Consequently, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of human bile obtained from patients with CC and patients with GSK -3203591 site benign disease, in order to potentially identify novel biomarkers for CC using a standard two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) strategy.Sample collection and preparationThe blood samples were centrifuged for 3,000 rpm/min at 4uC, and the serum was collected and frozen at 280uC until analysis. Fresh tissues were procured at the time of surgery and divided into two parts: one part was washed with saline to remove blood and bile and then snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, the other part was formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for HE staining or immunohistochemistry. All bile samples were collected from the gallbladder or dilated bile duct before resection during surgery under sterile conditions; a protease inhibitor (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL, USA) was added and samples were stored at 280uC until processing. The bile proteins were get Human parathyroid hormone-(1-34) enriched as previously described [8].Depletion of the high-abundance proteins in bileDepletion of the high-abundance proteins was performed using Multiple Affinity Removal System (MARS) columns (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA), which are designed to deplete 14 abundant proteins, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The protein concentrations of the processed bile samples were determined using the Bradford method (Beyotime, China) using BSA as a standard.Materials and Methods Ethical approvalAll samples and 1081537 clinical information were collected at the Liver Transplantation Center of the 1st Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, and all patients provided written informed consent. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Nanjing Medical University with an IEC number of 2011-SRFA012. The detailed patient characteristics are presented in Table 1.Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOFBile samples from 15 CC patients and 10 cholangitis patients were used for the 2-DE experiment. In the benign group, sixTable 1. Clinical characteristics of the patients included in this study.Characteristics CC group (35) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) CC type (hilar/-perihilar IHC) Histopathology (well/moderately/poorly) Lymph node metastasis (P/N) Nerve invasion (P/N) Sample source (bile/serum) Benign group (13) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum) Normal group (23) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum) HCC group (24) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum) Liver cirrhosis (10) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum)No. of individuals20/15 60.7610.6 yr 17/8 10/8/9 15/12 23/4 19/7/6 46.5612 yr 10/13/10 48.3613.7 yr 0/17/7 52.1613.9 y.IomarkerProteomics is the most commonly used technology for the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. The protein expression profiles of normal cells undergo distinct changes during malignant transformation, which may potentially provide appropriate biomarkers [7]. In CC, the bile drainage proteins directly secreted/shed by tumor cells may accumulate to higher concentrations in bile than serum, and may therefore be easier to identify in bile [8,9]. Although a few studies have attempted to perform large-scale identification of differently expressed bile proteins in CC [8,10?5], most of this research has focused on improvements in proteomic methodologies, or extension of the human bile proteomic profile in single or manipulus patients. Consequently, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of human bile obtained from patients with CC and patients with benign disease, in order to potentially identify novel biomarkers for CC using a standard two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) strategy.Sample collection and preparationThe blood samples were centrifuged for 3,000 rpm/min at 4uC, and the serum was collected and frozen at 280uC until analysis. Fresh tissues were procured at the time of surgery and divided into two parts: one part was washed with saline to remove blood and bile and then snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, the other part was formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for HE staining or immunohistochemistry. All bile samples were collected from the gallbladder or dilated bile duct before resection during surgery under sterile conditions; a protease inhibitor (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL, USA) was added and samples were stored at 280uC until processing. The bile proteins were enriched as previously described [8].Depletion of the high-abundance proteins in bileDepletion of the high-abundance proteins was performed using Multiple Affinity Removal System (MARS) columns (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA), which are designed to deplete 14 abundant proteins, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The protein concentrations of the processed bile samples were determined using the Bradford method (Beyotime, China) using BSA as a standard.Materials and Methods Ethical approvalAll samples and 1081537 clinical information were collected at the Liver Transplantation Center of the 1st Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, and all patients provided written informed consent. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Nanjing Medical University with an IEC number of 2011-SRFA012. The detailed patient characteristics are presented in Table 1.Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOFBile samples from 15 CC patients and 10 cholangitis patients were used for the 2-DE experiment. In the benign group, sixTable 1. Clinical characteristics of the patients included in this study.Characteristics CC group (35) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) CC type (hilar/-perihilar IHC) Histopathology (well/moderately/poorly) Lymph node metastasis (P/N) Nerve invasion (P/N) Sample source (bile/serum) Benign group (13) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum) Normal group (23) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum) HCC group (24) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum) Liver cirrhosis (10) Gender(male/female) Age (mean 6 SD) Sample source (bile/serum)No. of individuals20/15 60.7610.6 yr 17/8 10/8/9 15/12 23/4 19/7/6 46.5612 yr 10/13/10 48.3613.7 yr 0/17/7 52.1613.9 y.