Nce of a-SMA and E-cadherin was found between each of the

Nce of a-SMA and E-cadherin was found between each of the UUO groups andAdenosine A2AR and Renal Interstitial FibrosisFigure 4. A2AR activity regulated UUO-induced expression of a-SMA and E-cadherin. (A, B) Representative Western blot of a-SMA (A) and E-cadherin (B) in post-UUO kidneys. (C, D) Demonstration of the expression level of a-SMA and E-cadherin in the sham (WT+sham and KO+sham) control mice and animals subjected to UUO with CGS21680 treatment (WT+UUO+CGS and KO+UUO+CGS) or with vehicle treatment (WT+UUO+Veh and KO+UUO+Veh), at day 3, 7 and 14 post-UUO (n = 5 per group). Data are expressed as mean 6 SD. *P,0.05 between the two groups. NS, no significance. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060173.gsham groups (P.0.05, n = 5 per group, Figure 4), indicating the absence of EMT process. Notably, the expression level of a-SMA was enhanced by 58.6 at day 7, and 125.2 at day 14 in WT+UUO+Veh group compared to WT+Sham group (P ,0.05, n = 5 group, Figure 4). However, the expression level of Ecadherin was reduced by 35.4 at day 7 and 43.0 at day 14 in WT+UUO+Veh groups compared to WT+Sham group (P,0.05, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). Importantly, A2AR agonist treatment reduced a-SMA level in WT+UUO+CGS group (by 21.7 at day 7 and 31.3 at day 14) compared to WT+UUO+Veh group, P,0.05, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). Meanwhile, A2AR agonist treatment enhanced E-cadherin level in WT+UUO+CGS group (by 27.9 at day 7 and by 20.6 at day 14) compared to WT+UUO+Veh group (P,0.05, day 7 and day 14, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). Conversely, inactivation of A2AR (KO+UUO+Veh) led to an IQ-1 site opposite effect on a-SMA and E-cadherin levels compared to A2AR activation (WT+UUO+CGS) treatment. The expression of a-SMA was enhanced by 17.9 (day 7) and 54.2 (day 14), whereas the E-cadherin levels were decreased by 15.7 (day 7) and 39.6 (day 14), compared with WT+UUO+Veh group, (P,0.05, day 7 and day 14, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). In MedChemExpress LY2409021 addition, our immunochemistry data demonstrated that positive stained renal tubular epithelial cells were seen in vehicletreated WT mice (WT+UUO+Veh) and A2AR KO mutants (KO+UUO+Veh), but devoid in WT mice which received CGS21680 treatment (WT+UUO+CGS), at day 7 post-UUO (Figure 5). This immunohistology data is consistent with our Western blot evaluations of a-SMA. Together, A2AR activationinduced reduction of a-SMA and the increase of E-cadherin suggest an inhibitory effect of A2AR on the tubular EMT process.Adenosine A2AR and Renal Interstitial FibrosisFigure 5. A2AR activation inhibited UUO-induced EMT process. Representative immunohistochemistry staining of a-SMA in mice at day 7 post-UUO. The a-SMA, as the marker for myofibroblast (red arrow), was positively stained on the renal tubular epithelial cells in WT (WT+UUO+Veh) and A2AR KO (KO+UUO+Veh) mice whereas treatment of CGS21680 reduced positive staining of a-SMA in WT+UUO+CGS mice. Scale bar = 50 mm, 400x. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060173.g3. A2AR activation attenuated the expression of profibrotic mediatorsTo mechanistically evaluate the A2AR modulation on RIF, we detected the mRNA expression of two crucial profibrotic mediators, TGF-b1 and ROCK1 using RT-qPCR. We showed that the expression level of TGF-b1 mRNA was significantly increased at day 3 through day 14 in WT+UUO+Veh group (an increase of 411 , 789 and 833 at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively) compared to WT+Sham control group (P,0.05, n = 10 per group, Figure 6). Importantly, A2AR agonist treatment attenuated theincrease of.Nce of a-SMA and E-cadherin was found between each of the UUO groups andAdenosine A2AR and Renal Interstitial FibrosisFigure 4. A2AR activity regulated UUO-induced expression of a-SMA and E-cadherin. (A, B) Representative Western blot of a-SMA (A) and E-cadherin (B) in post-UUO kidneys. (C, D) Demonstration of the expression level of a-SMA and E-cadherin in the sham (WT+sham and KO+sham) control mice and animals subjected to UUO with CGS21680 treatment (WT+UUO+CGS and KO+UUO+CGS) or with vehicle treatment (WT+UUO+Veh and KO+UUO+Veh), at day 3, 7 and 14 post-UUO (n = 5 per group). Data are expressed as mean 6 SD. *P,0.05 between the two groups. NS, no significance. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060173.gsham groups (P.0.05, n = 5 per group, Figure 4), indicating the absence of EMT process. Notably, the expression level of a-SMA was enhanced by 58.6 at day 7, and 125.2 at day 14 in WT+UUO+Veh group compared to WT+Sham group (P ,0.05, n = 5 group, Figure 4). However, the expression level of Ecadherin was reduced by 35.4 at day 7 and 43.0 at day 14 in WT+UUO+Veh groups compared to WT+Sham group (P,0.05, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). Importantly, A2AR agonist treatment reduced a-SMA level in WT+UUO+CGS group (by 21.7 at day 7 and 31.3 at day 14) compared to WT+UUO+Veh group, P,0.05, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). Meanwhile, A2AR agonist treatment enhanced E-cadherin level in WT+UUO+CGS group (by 27.9 at day 7 and by 20.6 at day 14) compared to WT+UUO+Veh group (P,0.05, day 7 and day 14, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). Conversely, inactivation of A2AR (KO+UUO+Veh) led to an opposite effect on a-SMA and E-cadherin levels compared to A2AR activation (WT+UUO+CGS) treatment. The expression of a-SMA was enhanced by 17.9 (day 7) and 54.2 (day 14), whereas the E-cadherin levels were decreased by 15.7 (day 7) and 39.6 (day 14), compared with WT+UUO+Veh group, (P,0.05, day 7 and day 14, n = 5 per group, Figure 4). In addition, our immunochemistry data demonstrated that positive stained renal tubular epithelial cells were seen in vehicletreated WT mice (WT+UUO+Veh) and A2AR KO mutants (KO+UUO+Veh), but devoid in WT mice which received CGS21680 treatment (WT+UUO+CGS), at day 7 post-UUO (Figure 5). This immunohistology data is consistent with our Western blot evaluations of a-SMA. Together, A2AR activationinduced reduction of a-SMA and the increase of E-cadherin suggest an inhibitory effect of A2AR on the tubular EMT process.Adenosine A2AR and Renal Interstitial FibrosisFigure 5. A2AR activation inhibited UUO-induced EMT process. Representative immunohistochemistry staining of a-SMA in mice at day 7 post-UUO. The a-SMA, as the marker for myofibroblast (red arrow), was positively stained on the renal tubular epithelial cells in WT (WT+UUO+Veh) and A2AR KO (KO+UUO+Veh) mice whereas treatment of CGS21680 reduced positive staining of a-SMA in WT+UUO+CGS mice. Scale bar = 50 mm, 400x. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060173.g3. A2AR activation attenuated the expression of profibrotic mediatorsTo mechanistically evaluate the A2AR modulation on RIF, we detected the mRNA expression of two crucial profibrotic mediators, TGF-b1 and ROCK1 using RT-qPCR. We showed that the expression level of TGF-b1 mRNA was significantly increased at day 3 through day 14 in WT+UUO+Veh group (an increase of 411 , 789 and 833 at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively) compared to WT+Sham control group (P,0.05, n = 10 per group, Figure 6). Importantly, A2AR agonist treatment attenuated theincrease of.