G efficiencies observed. In all experiments BXP34 gave 3 times greater relative

G efficiencies observed. In all experiments BXP34 gave 3 times greater relative staining (as measured by the Geo Mean values of the gated populations) than either the BXP21 or the 5D3 antibodies (the exact epitopes of the mAbs are unknown), therefore in the calculated ABCG2 factor we used the following equation: ((BXP34/3)+BXP21+5D3)/3. As documented in Figure 2, a linear correlation between the calculated average of BXP34 and BXP21 binding ((BXP34/3)+BXP21)/2) in the red cell ghosts and the values measured for the cell-surface reactive, human-specific 5D3 binding 11967625 in whole red cells was observed. The calculated intra- and inter assay variations are presented in the Results section and in the Supplementary Materials.Flow CytometryFreshly drawn human blood (25 ml) was diluted in 4 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1 PFA and fixed for 60 min at 25uC. In preliminary experiments we have analyzed the effects of various PFA concentrations (0.5? ), phosphate or Tris buffer concentrations, fixation periods (10?20 min) and fixation temperatures (4?7uC), and found the above conditions allowing optimum formation of mixed intact red cell/ghost populations as well as antibody recognition. After fixation the cells were centrifuged at 3,000 6 g for 10 min and the pellet was resuspended in 100 ml PBS. Antibody staining was performed for 40 min at 37uC by using the BXP34 (final concentration 5 mg/ml) and the BXP21 (7 mg/ml) generated by G. Scheffer [41]), the 5D3 (final concentration 5 mg/ml, BDPharmingen 562167) 1113-59-3 site monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for ABCG2, or the ML-281 cost respective IgG (immunoglobulin G) control antibodies (IgG1: Invitrogen, MG100, IgG2a: Invitrogen, MG2A00, IgG2b: Invitrogen, MG2B00, final concentrations 5 mg/ml). It should be noted that BXP21 can also be used for Western blotting, while the BXP34 mAb does not recognize ABCG2 on Western blots but specifically interacts with the protein in tissue preparations [42]. Antibody concentrations for ABCG2 labeling in red cells were carefully calibrated to provide maximum labeling in a full range of protein expression (see below).Additional MethodsIn order to compare the relative expression of ABCG2 in the red cell membrane to those in known expression systems, we performed Western blot experiments using isolated red cell membranes, isolated Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing the human ABCG2 protein, and A431 cells overexpressing ABCG2 (see Supplementary Materials and refs. [45,46,47]. In accordance with previous data in the literature [35,36,37,38,39], we detected both the monomeric and dimeric forms of ABCG2 in the red cell membrane but found that this assay is not suitable for the proper quantitation of small changes in ABCG2 expression (see Supplementary Materials). The ABCG2 transport function in inside-out red cell membrane vesicles has been determined earlier [35,36]. We found that in intact human erythrocyte this function could not be properly studied by flow cytometry, as the fluorescence of all the availableABCG2 in the Erythrocyte MembraneABCG2 in the Erythrocyte MembraneFigure 1. Quantitative determination of ABCG2 expression in the erythrocyte membrane by flow cytometry. Anticoagulated blood samples of healthy volunteers were fixed in paraformaldehyde, stained with monoclonal antibodies recognizing human ABCG2, and subjected to flow cytometry (see Online Methods). Antibody staining was performed by BXP34 (Panel B), BXP21 (Panel C) and 5D3 (Panel D) mAbs specific for AB.G efficiencies observed. In all experiments BXP34 gave 3 times greater relative staining (as measured by the Geo Mean values of the gated populations) than either the BXP21 or the 5D3 antibodies (the exact epitopes of the mAbs are unknown), therefore in the calculated ABCG2 factor we used the following equation: ((BXP34/3)+BXP21+5D3)/3. As documented in Figure 2, a linear correlation between the calculated average of BXP34 and BXP21 binding ((BXP34/3)+BXP21)/2) in the red cell ghosts and the values measured for the cell-surface reactive, human-specific 5D3 binding 11967625 in whole red cells was observed. The calculated intra- and inter assay variations are presented in the Results section and in the Supplementary Materials.Flow CytometryFreshly drawn human blood (25 ml) was diluted in 4 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1 PFA and fixed for 60 min at 25uC. In preliminary experiments we have analyzed the effects of various PFA concentrations (0.5? ), phosphate or Tris buffer concentrations, fixation periods (10?20 min) and fixation temperatures (4?7uC), and found the above conditions allowing optimum formation of mixed intact red cell/ghost populations as well as antibody recognition. After fixation the cells were centrifuged at 3,000 6 g for 10 min and the pellet was resuspended in 100 ml PBS. Antibody staining was performed for 40 min at 37uC by using the BXP34 (final concentration 5 mg/ml) and the BXP21 (7 mg/ml) generated by G. Scheffer [41]), the 5D3 (final concentration 5 mg/ml, BDPharmingen 562167) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for ABCG2, or the respective IgG (immunoglobulin G) control antibodies (IgG1: Invitrogen, MG100, IgG2a: Invitrogen, MG2A00, IgG2b: Invitrogen, MG2B00, final concentrations 5 mg/ml). It should be noted that BXP21 can also be used for Western blotting, while the BXP34 mAb does not recognize ABCG2 on Western blots but specifically interacts with the protein in tissue preparations [42]. Antibody concentrations for ABCG2 labeling in red cells were carefully calibrated to provide maximum labeling in a full range of protein expression (see below).Additional MethodsIn order to compare the relative expression of ABCG2 in the red cell membrane to those in known expression systems, we performed Western blot experiments using isolated red cell membranes, isolated Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing the human ABCG2 protein, and A431 cells overexpressing ABCG2 (see Supplementary Materials and refs. [45,46,47]. In accordance with previous data in the literature [35,36,37,38,39], we detected both the monomeric and dimeric forms of ABCG2 in the red cell membrane but found that this assay is not suitable for the proper quantitation of small changes in ABCG2 expression (see Supplementary Materials). The ABCG2 transport function in inside-out red cell membrane vesicles has been determined earlier [35,36]. We found that in intact human erythrocyte this function could not be properly studied by flow cytometry, as the fluorescence of all the availableABCG2 in the Erythrocyte MembraneABCG2 in the Erythrocyte MembraneFigure 1. Quantitative determination of ABCG2 expression in the erythrocyte membrane by flow cytometry. Anticoagulated blood samples of healthy volunteers were fixed in paraformaldehyde, stained with monoclonal antibodies recognizing human ABCG2, and subjected to flow cytometry (see Online Methods). Antibody staining was performed by BXP34 (Panel B), BXP21 (Panel C) and 5D3 (Panel D) mAbs specific for AB.