Appearance (Fig. 1A, C, E). The transverse area of the axial

Appearance (Fig. 1A, C, E). The transverse area of the axial spinal cord sections did not differ significantly between the two groups (Fig. 1B). LFB and EC staining did not reveal any significant differences between WT and CST-KO mice in the myelinated area of the ventral side (4506250 1379592 mm2) (Fig. 1D, F).Statistical AnalysesAll values are presented as the mean 6 standard deviation (s.d.). After testing for normality, an unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences in the MRI findings between the WT and CST-KO groups. The MannWhitney test was used to detect significant differences in the histological, behavioral, and MEP findings. For all statistical analyses, significance was defined as p,0.05. GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0d) was used for the analyses (GraphPad Software, Inc., CA, USA).MRI and DTI analyses of the WT and CST-KO spinal cordsTo determine whether MRI could detect anatomical structural differences between the spinal cords of WT and CST-KO mice, we obtained high-resolution in vivo and ex vivo MR images using a cryogenic coil (Fig. 2). The ROIs used to define the ventral side of the spinal cord were drawn on each T1 and T2 map. The ex vivoMRI Findings of Paranodal Junction Failurethe spinal cord) (Fig. 3B) were significantly higher in CST-KO than in WT mice.Histological analyses of spinal cord paranodal junctions in WT and CST-KO miceTo examine the functional paranodal structure in CST-KO mice, we analyzed the distribution of Nav channels, Caspr clusters, and Kv channels in the spinal cord by paranodal immunostaining [3,4]. In WT axons, Nav channels were localized to the nodes of Ranvier, Caspr clusters to the paranodal junctions, and Kv channels to the juxtaparanodal regions. In the CST-KO axons, the localization and structure of the Nav channels and Caspr clusters, but not of the Kv channels, were altered (Fig. 4A). The number of paranodal structures per field of view (FOV) (1 FOV = 1006100 mm2) was significantly lower in the CST-KO mice than in WT mice (Fig. 4B). Furthermore, electron microscopic examination revealed that the paranodal loops in the CST-KO mice were turned away from the axon (Fig. 4C). Toluidine blue staining showed conspicuous focal axonal swelling (axonal spheroid formation), due to paranodal junction failure in the CST-KO spinal cord (Fig. 4D; arrows). In addition, the axon density was significantly lower in the CST-KO mice than in the WT mice (Fig. 4E).Functional and electrophysiological analyses of WT and CST-KO miceSince CST-KO mice show pronounced tremor and progressive ataxia [3], we analyzed their motor function. Footprint analysis with the DigiGait Image Analysis System showed that the steps of CST-KO mice, both with the forelimbs and hindlimbs, were significantly wider than those of WT mice (Fig. 5A, B). In the Rotarod treadmill test, CST-KO mice 3-Amino-1-propanesulfonic acid price walked on the rod for significantly less time than did WT mice (Fig. 5C). MEP analysis of the spinal nerve conduction showed that the latency was significantly longer in CST-KO mice than in WT mice (Fig. 5 D, E).DiscussionIn this study, high-resolution MRI and DTI were able to detect paranodal junction failure in CST-KO mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings for paranodal failure. Although Bonny et al reported in vivo Dimethylenastron site diffusion-weighted images of the mouse spinal cord several years ago [23], it is still difficult to obtain clear images of the spinal cord due to the s.Appearance (Fig. 1A, C, E). The transverse area of the axial spinal cord sections did not differ significantly between the two groups (Fig. 1B). LFB and EC staining did not reveal any significant differences between WT and CST-KO mice in the myelinated area of the ventral side (4506250 1379592 mm2) (Fig. 1D, F).Statistical AnalysesAll values are presented as the mean 6 standard deviation (s.d.). After testing for normality, an unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences in the MRI findings between the WT and CST-KO groups. The MannWhitney test was used to detect significant differences in the histological, behavioral, and MEP findings. For all statistical analyses, significance was defined as p,0.05. GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0d) was used for the analyses (GraphPad Software, Inc., CA, USA).MRI and DTI analyses of the WT and CST-KO spinal cordsTo determine whether MRI could detect anatomical structural differences between the spinal cords of WT and CST-KO mice, we obtained high-resolution in vivo and ex vivo MR images using a cryogenic coil (Fig. 2). The ROIs used to define the ventral side of the spinal cord were drawn on each T1 and T2 map. The ex vivoMRI Findings of Paranodal Junction Failurethe spinal cord) (Fig. 3B) were significantly higher in CST-KO than in WT mice.Histological analyses of spinal cord paranodal junctions in WT and CST-KO miceTo examine the functional paranodal structure in CST-KO mice, we analyzed the distribution of Nav channels, Caspr clusters, and Kv channels in the spinal cord by paranodal immunostaining [3,4]. In WT axons, Nav channels were localized to the nodes of Ranvier, Caspr clusters to the paranodal junctions, and Kv channels to the juxtaparanodal regions. In the CST-KO axons, the localization and structure of the Nav channels and Caspr clusters, but not of the Kv channels, were altered (Fig. 4A). The number of paranodal structures per field of view (FOV) (1 FOV = 1006100 mm2) was significantly lower in the CST-KO mice than in WT mice (Fig. 4B). Furthermore, electron microscopic examination revealed that the paranodal loops in the CST-KO mice were turned away from the axon (Fig. 4C). Toluidine blue staining showed conspicuous focal axonal swelling (axonal spheroid formation), due to paranodal junction failure in the CST-KO spinal cord (Fig. 4D; arrows). In addition, the axon density was significantly lower in the CST-KO mice than in the WT mice (Fig. 4E).Functional and electrophysiological analyses of WT and CST-KO miceSince CST-KO mice show pronounced tremor and progressive ataxia [3], we analyzed their motor function. Footprint analysis with the DigiGait Image Analysis System showed that the steps of CST-KO mice, both with the forelimbs and hindlimbs, were significantly wider than those of WT mice (Fig. 5A, B). In the Rotarod treadmill test, CST-KO mice walked on the rod for significantly less time than did WT mice (Fig. 5C). MEP analysis of the spinal nerve conduction showed that the latency was significantly longer in CST-KO mice than in WT mice (Fig. 5 D, E).DiscussionIn this study, high-resolution MRI and DTI were able to detect paranodal junction failure in CST-KO mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings for paranodal failure. Although Bonny et al reported in vivo diffusion-weighted images of the mouse spinal cord several years ago [23], it is still difficult to obtain clear images of the spinal cord due to the s.