Gnificantly decreased in size and lacked dorsal projection. In contrast, 1 month

Gnificantly decreased in size and lacked dorsal projection. In contrast, 1 month after implantation, cellular Lixisenatide web constructs retained their general contour visible through the thick skin of the rat, as well as their projection from the animal’s dorsal surface. These findings were even more pronounced at 3 months: acellular specimens were barely visible through the animals’ skin, while cellular constructs maintained their projection and surface characteristics. Ex vivo analysis confirmed 1655472 in vivo findings. One-month acellular constructs were wispy and amorphous, while cellular scaffolds maintained their tragus, lobule, helix, and antihelix features. This difference was even more apparent after 3 months: acellular implants had decreased in size, whereas cellular constructs retained their original anatomic fidelity (Figure 4). Post-harvest weight of cellular constructs was significantly greater than that of acellular constructs after 1 (4.1760.17 g v. 0.8060.07 g, p,161024) and 3 (5.1261.78 g v. 0.6760.03 g, p = 0.021) months. The 58-49-1 web length of acellular constructs harvested after 3 months was significantly less that that of constructs harvested after 1 month (2.5360.17 cm v. 3.6760.30 cm, p = 0.009). In contrast, cellular construct length did not change over time (3.6360.65 cm v. 3.3460.07 cm at 3 months and 1 month, respectively). Lastly, cellular construct post-harvest width was significantly greater than acellular construct width at 3 months (2.2560.90 cm v. 1.2760.06 cm, p = 0.04) (Figure 5).Figure 5. Ex vivo analysis of specimen length and width. (A) The length of acellular constructs harvested after 3 months was significantly less that that of constructs harvested after 1 month. In contrast, cellular construct length did not change over time. (B) Cellular construct width was significantly greater than acellular construct width at 3 months. * denotes p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056506.gFigure 4. Ex vivo gross analysis. Three months after implantation, acellular implants (A) had decreased in size, whereas cellular constructs (B) retained their original anatomic fidelity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056506.gTissue Engineering of Patient-Specific AuriclesHistologic analysesSafranin O staining of acellular ears harvested after 1 month demonstrated histologic evidence of the formation of a thin capsule (not evident on gross inspection) by spindle-shaped fibroblast-appearing cells, as well as mononuclear cell invasion. However, even at the center of acellular specimens, there was no evidence of cartilage deposition. Cellular constructs harvested after 1 month demonstrated similar evidence of capsule formation and an even more robust infiltration of mononuclear cells. In addition, samples seeded with chondrocytes also demonstrated marked cartilage deposition by lacunar chondrocytes (Figure 6). Safranin O staining appeared to progress with time, with deeper and more uniform Safranin O staining occurring in cellular 3month samples compared with 1-month samples (Figure 7). At both time points, cellular samples contained large areas of cartilage, several millimeters thick. Specimens appeared to contain a distinct layer between the newly formed cartilage and the surrounding fibrous capsule. This layer resembled a perichondrium, with cells that were more rounded than fibroblasts surrounded by matrix with minimal proteoglycan content. Deep within the cellular constructs, both 1- and 3-month samples had large regions of mature cartilage containing large.Gnificantly decreased in size and lacked dorsal projection. In contrast, 1 month after implantation, cellular constructs retained their general contour visible through the thick skin of the rat, as well as their projection from the animal’s dorsal surface. These findings were even more pronounced at 3 months: acellular specimens were barely visible through the animals’ skin, while cellular constructs maintained their projection and surface characteristics. Ex vivo analysis confirmed 1655472 in vivo findings. One-month acellular constructs were wispy and amorphous, while cellular scaffolds maintained their tragus, lobule, helix, and antihelix features. This difference was even more apparent after 3 months: acellular implants had decreased in size, whereas cellular constructs retained their original anatomic fidelity (Figure 4). Post-harvest weight of cellular constructs was significantly greater than that of acellular constructs after 1 (4.1760.17 g v. 0.8060.07 g, p,161024) and 3 (5.1261.78 g v. 0.6760.03 g, p = 0.021) months. The length of acellular constructs harvested after 3 months was significantly less that that of constructs harvested after 1 month (2.5360.17 cm v. 3.6760.30 cm, p = 0.009). In contrast, cellular construct length did not change over time (3.6360.65 cm v. 3.3460.07 cm at 3 months and 1 month, respectively). Lastly, cellular construct post-harvest width was significantly greater than acellular construct width at 3 months (2.2560.90 cm v. 1.2760.06 cm, p = 0.04) (Figure 5).Figure 5. Ex vivo analysis of specimen length and width. (A) The length of acellular constructs harvested after 3 months was significantly less that that of constructs harvested after 1 month. In contrast, cellular construct length did not change over time. (B) Cellular construct width was significantly greater than acellular construct width at 3 months. * denotes p,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056506.gFigure 4. Ex vivo gross analysis. Three months after implantation, acellular implants (A) had decreased in size, whereas cellular constructs (B) retained their original anatomic fidelity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056506.gTissue Engineering of Patient-Specific AuriclesHistologic analysesSafranin O staining of acellular ears harvested after 1 month demonstrated histologic evidence of the formation of a thin capsule (not evident on gross inspection) by spindle-shaped fibroblast-appearing cells, as well as mononuclear cell invasion. However, even at the center of acellular specimens, there was no evidence of cartilage deposition. Cellular constructs harvested after 1 month demonstrated similar evidence of capsule formation and an even more robust infiltration of mononuclear cells. In addition, samples seeded with chondrocytes also demonstrated marked cartilage deposition by lacunar chondrocytes (Figure 6). Safranin O staining appeared to progress with time, with deeper and more uniform Safranin O staining occurring in cellular 3month samples compared with 1-month samples (Figure 7). At both time points, cellular samples contained large areas of cartilage, several millimeters thick. Specimens appeared to contain a distinct layer between the newly formed cartilage and the surrounding fibrous capsule. This layer resembled a perichondrium, with cells that were more rounded than fibroblasts surrounded by matrix with minimal proteoglycan content. Deep within the cellular constructs, both 1- and 3-month samples had large regions of mature cartilage containing large.