That included measurements of pulmonary function. In this study, we obtained

That included measurements of pulmonary function. In this study, we obtained the data of 2608 Chinese respondents, and excluded in the analyses 81 respondents who did not perform spirometry, 46 with technically unsatisfactory spirometric performance and 3 with other missing data. Complete spirometric 1326631 data was analyzed for 2478 respondents.Statistical analysisThe associations 3397-23-7 biological activity between levels of curry intake (primary independent variable of interest) and FEV1, FVC or FEV1/FVC (dependent variables) were determined using multiple linear regression. The regression models included a priori potential confounding co-variables which are known risk factors of pulmonary impairment established in the literature, and significant variables identified from initial univariate analyses (p,0.05). The primary confounding variables in all adjustment models for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC included appropriately gender, age (single years), height (cm), smoking status (non-smokers, past smoker, current smoker, less than 20 cigarettes per day, 20 or more cigarettes per day), past occupational history and reported past or recent history of asthma, and additionally a significant height-squared term, where appropriate. Body mass index, dietary and SIS 3 supplement variables (intakes of fruits or vegetables, fish, milk or dairy products, antioxidant vitamins A, C or E supplements, vitamin D supplement, omega supplement, selenium supplement) which were possible nutritional co-variables of curry intake, were identified from initial base models and significant variables (p,0.05) were added in sequential models for further adjustments of the coefficient estimates of association between curry intake and pulmonary variables. Tests of linear trends in adjusted mean values of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC across four ordinal categories of curry consumption were derived from estimated marginal mean values from ANCOVA in general linear model. Finally, we tested for significant interaction between curry intake (at least once a month versus less than once a month) and smoking status (non-smoker, past smoker and current smoker). All statistical tests were twosided, and statistical significance was determined by p,0.05.SpirometryVentilatory function testing was performed using a portable, battery operated, ultrasound transit-time based spirometer (EasyOne; Model 2001 Diagnostic Spirometer, NDD Medical Technologies, Zurich, Switzerland). Forced expiratory maneuvers were performed with the respondent seated according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations on standardization of procedures31: at least three technically acceptable maneuvers, with the two best forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), reproducible to within 5 or 200 mL. The largest FEV1 and the largest FVC on any of the acceptable tests were used. Height and weight was measured with a portable Seca stadiometer (Model 708 1314004, Vogel Hake Hamburg, Germany).Curcumin and Pulmonary FunctionStatistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Il).(b = +4.50 6 SE = 3.37, p = 0.18) associated with curry consumption as well.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 66 years. (Table 1) Almost 10 of the participants reported consuming 12926553 curry at least once a week, and 25 reported consuming curry at least once a month. The frequencies of reported daily intake of supplements were about 18 for vitamins A,C, E and D, 6.5 for omega-3 fatt.That included measurements of pulmonary function. In this study, we obtained the data of 2608 Chinese respondents, and excluded in the analyses 81 respondents who did not perform spirometry, 46 with technically unsatisfactory spirometric performance and 3 with other missing data. Complete spirometric 1326631 data was analyzed for 2478 respondents.Statistical analysisThe associations between levels of curry intake (primary independent variable of interest) and FEV1, FVC or FEV1/FVC (dependent variables) were determined using multiple linear regression. The regression models included a priori potential confounding co-variables which are known risk factors of pulmonary impairment established in the literature, and significant variables identified from initial univariate analyses (p,0.05). The primary confounding variables in all adjustment models for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC included appropriately gender, age (single years), height (cm), smoking status (non-smokers, past smoker, current smoker, less than 20 cigarettes per day, 20 or more cigarettes per day), past occupational history and reported past or recent history of asthma, and additionally a significant height-squared term, where appropriate. Body mass index, dietary and supplement variables (intakes of fruits or vegetables, fish, milk or dairy products, antioxidant vitamins A, C or E supplements, vitamin D supplement, omega supplement, selenium supplement) which were possible nutritional co-variables of curry intake, were identified from initial base models and significant variables (p,0.05) were added in sequential models for further adjustments of the coefficient estimates of association between curry intake and pulmonary variables. Tests of linear trends in adjusted mean values of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC across four ordinal categories of curry consumption were derived from estimated marginal mean values from ANCOVA in general linear model. Finally, we tested for significant interaction between curry intake (at least once a month versus less than once a month) and smoking status (non-smoker, past smoker and current smoker). All statistical tests were twosided, and statistical significance was determined by p,0.05.SpirometryVentilatory function testing was performed using a portable, battery operated, ultrasound transit-time based spirometer (EasyOne; Model 2001 Diagnostic Spirometer, NDD Medical Technologies, Zurich, Switzerland). Forced expiratory maneuvers were performed with the respondent seated according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations on standardization of procedures31: at least three technically acceptable maneuvers, with the two best forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), reproducible to within 5 or 200 mL. The largest FEV1 and the largest FVC on any of the acceptable tests were used. Height and weight was measured with a portable Seca stadiometer (Model 708 1314004, Vogel Hake Hamburg, Germany).Curcumin and Pulmonary FunctionStatistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Il).(b = +4.50 6 SE = 3.37, p = 0.18) associated with curry consumption as well.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 66 years. (Table 1) Almost 10 of the participants reported consuming 12926553 curry at least once a week, and 25 reported consuming curry at least once a month. The frequencies of reported daily intake of supplements were about 18 for vitamins A,C, E and D, 6.5 for omega-3 fatt.