Temperature. After a second blocking step with 3 BSA, PMNs were incubated

Temperature. After a second blocking step with 3 BSA, PMNs were incubated with FITC-labeled goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (1:12,000 in PBS/1 BSA) for 1 hour. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst (1:2000) and PMNs examined by immunofluorescence microscopy.Human polymorphonuclear leukocytesHuman polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were isolated as previously described from fresh whole blood [10], for which healthy donors signed written informed consent forms or from buffy coats, which were purchased from Sanquin Blood Bank (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Resulting PMN preparations consisted of 95?7 PMNs, based on PMNs physical parameters analyzed by flow cytometry and CD16 expression. The preparations were negative for CD14, meaning that the preparations did not contain monocytes. PMNs from COPD patients were collected and were tested for CXCL8 release and PE activity. For this PMN study, the PMNs from fresh whole blood of healthy donors and COPD patients were used. The characteristics of the human subjects included in the PMN study are presented in Table 2.PE activity assayFreshly isolated PMNs (106 cells) were stimulated with indicated reagents. Supernatant and cell lysates (lysated with 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl, 15 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 10 glycerol and1 Triton-X 100 in Milli Q water) were harvested and frozen until use. The protein concentration of each lysate was assayed using the Pierce BCA protein assay kit standardized to BSA according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Thermo GDC-0152 custom synthesis Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL). PE activity was measured in these supernatants and lysates using the fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Pro-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (2-G-P-AMC) (Bachem). Twenty microliters of cell lysate or supernatant was added to each well in a black 96-well flat-bottom plate, followed byCigarette smoke extract (CSE)CSE was prepared by using a smoking machine (Teague Enterprises, Davis, Ca, USA) as previously described [33]. Direct and side stream smoke from one 2R4F cigarette was directed via aCollagen Breakdown Leads to Chronic InflammationTable 2. Characteristics of COPD patients and healthy controls (PMNs).HEALTHY DONOR Gender (m/f, n) Age (yrs) Current smoker/not current smoker (n/n) Packyears (yrs) FEV1, predicted FEV1/FVC, Data are presented as RG-7604 median (range). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055612.t002 3/5 45 (26?3) 0/8 -COPD PATIENT GOLD STAGE I II 7/4 60 (35?2) 5/6 31 (22?7) 55.7 (27.9?9.9) 18325633 47 (27?0)addition of 80 ml of assay buffer (25 mM Tris, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.5, 2 mM DTT) containing 100 mM substrate Z-Gly-ProAMC. The fluorescence from liberated AMC was monitored every 1 min over 60 min at 37uC using a Fluostar reader at excitation wavelength of 355 nm and an emission wavelength of 460 nm. Fluorometric intensities observed were converted to pmol AMC released per minute using appropriate AMC standard curves.Photomicrographs were taken with an Olympus BX50 microscope equipped with a Leica DFC 320 digital camera.PGP generation assayFreshly isolated PMNs (106 cells) were incubated with 15 ml of a 1 mg/ml solution of type I or type II collagen in PBS containing bestatin (50 mg/ml) and indicated reagents for 16 hours at 37uC. The collagen was extensively dialyzed beforehand to remove PGP. After incubation, samples were 10 kDa filtered, washed with 40 ml of 1 N HCl, and analyzed by ESI-LC-MS/MS for levels of N-acPGP.Western blottingFreshly isolated PMNs (106 cells) were stimulated for 9 hours with indicated reagents. Supernatant a.Temperature. After a second blocking step with 3 BSA, PMNs were incubated with FITC-labeled goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (1:12,000 in PBS/1 BSA) for 1 hour. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst (1:2000) and PMNs examined by immunofluorescence microscopy.Human polymorphonuclear leukocytesHuman polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were isolated as previously described from fresh whole blood [10], for which healthy donors signed written informed consent forms or from buffy coats, which were purchased from Sanquin Blood Bank (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Resulting PMN preparations consisted of 95?7 PMNs, based on PMNs physical parameters analyzed by flow cytometry and CD16 expression. The preparations were negative for CD14, meaning that the preparations did not contain monocytes. PMNs from COPD patients were collected and were tested for CXCL8 release and PE activity. For this PMN study, the PMNs from fresh whole blood of healthy donors and COPD patients were used. The characteristics of the human subjects included in the PMN study are presented in Table 2.PE activity assayFreshly isolated PMNs (106 cells) were stimulated with indicated reagents. Supernatant and cell lysates (lysated with 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl, 15 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 10 glycerol and1 Triton-X 100 in Milli Q water) were harvested and frozen until use. The protein concentration of each lysate was assayed using the Pierce BCA protein assay kit standardized to BSA according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL). PE activity was measured in these supernatants and lysates using the fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Pro-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (2-G-P-AMC) (Bachem). Twenty microliters of cell lysate or supernatant was added to each well in a black 96-well flat-bottom plate, followed byCigarette smoke extract (CSE)CSE was prepared by using a smoking machine (Teague Enterprises, Davis, Ca, USA) as previously described [33]. Direct and side stream smoke from one 2R4F cigarette was directed via aCollagen Breakdown Leads to Chronic InflammationTable 2. Characteristics of COPD patients and healthy controls (PMNs).HEALTHY DONOR Gender (m/f, n) Age (yrs) Current smoker/not current smoker (n/n) Packyears (yrs) FEV1, predicted FEV1/FVC, Data are presented as median (range). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055612.t002 3/5 45 (26?3) 0/8 -COPD PATIENT GOLD STAGE I II 7/4 60 (35?2) 5/6 31 (22?7) 55.7 (27.9?9.9) 18325633 47 (27?0)addition of 80 ml of assay buffer (25 mM Tris, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.5, 2 mM DTT) containing 100 mM substrate Z-Gly-ProAMC. The fluorescence from liberated AMC was monitored every 1 min over 60 min at 37uC using a Fluostar reader at excitation wavelength of 355 nm and an emission wavelength of 460 nm. Fluorometric intensities observed were converted to pmol AMC released per minute using appropriate AMC standard curves.Photomicrographs were taken with an Olympus BX50 microscope equipped with a Leica DFC 320 digital camera.PGP generation assayFreshly isolated PMNs (106 cells) were incubated with 15 ml of a 1 mg/ml solution of type I or type II collagen in PBS containing bestatin (50 mg/ml) and indicated reagents for 16 hours at 37uC. The collagen was extensively dialyzed beforehand to remove PGP. After incubation, samples were 10 kDa filtered, washed with 40 ml of 1 N HCl, and analyzed by ESI-LC-MS/MS for levels of N-acPGP.Western blottingFreshly isolated PMNs (106 cells) were stimulated for 9 hours with indicated reagents. Supernatant a.