D not differ in terms of number of inpatient hospitalizations or

D not differ in terms of number of inpurchase Thonzonium (bromide) patient hospitalizations or emergency room visits, frequency of non-suicidal self-injury, psychiatric symptoms, interpersonal functioning and global functioning. Overall, CBT+TAU led to improved treatment outcomes in a handful of critical domains, when compared to a lowintensity TAU condition. A recent study by Cottraux and colleagues (41) found that CBT for BPD was superior to Rogerian supportive counseling (SC) for some outcomes. Outpatients with BPD were randomized to receive one year of weekly CBT (n = 33) or SC (n = 32). Treatment completers were assessed at 6, 12 and 24 months. Participants in CBT and SC did not differ in terms of depression, anxiety, dysfunctional cognitions, suicidal and self-damaging behavior or quality of life. However, CBT was associated with more rapid improvements in hopelessness and trait-level impulsivity, higher ratings of the therapeutic relationship and better treatment retention. CBT also was associated with greater improvements in patientand clinician-rated global symptom severity at the 24-month follow-up, which may suggest continued gains following treatment termination. However, this finding should be interpreted with caution because a high proportion of patients dropped out of treatment or were lost to follow-up, so an intent-to-treat analysis may have produced different results. Manual Assisted Cognitive Therapy (MACT) is another CBT package that was developed to address the need for a brief, cost-effective intervention for patients with BPD (and other Cluster B personality disorders) who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (42). MACT is a sixsession manualized treatment that combines traditional components of CBT (e.g., thought monitoring, psychoeducation) with elements of DBT (e.g., distress tolerance skills, functional analysis of incidents of non-suicidal self-injury). Treatment material is presented to the patient in the form of a workbook, which contains information about various skills and strategies for reducing episodes of self-damaging behavior. The therapist provides support as the patient completes the worksheets for content area MACT has been evaluated in a number of studies. In the preliminary study, patients with a cluster B PD and a recent episode of non-suicidal self-injury or suicide attempt were assigned to receive either TAU, which consisted of standard psychiatric care (n = 16) or MACT (n = 18). Even though patients received, on average, less than three of the six treatment sessions, patients in MACT demonstrated significant reductions in depression and inpatient days and a significant increase in future-oriented thinking at follow-up (42, 43). In a follow-up to this study,Psychiatr Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 1.Matusiewicz et al.Pageparticipants with BPD were randomized to receive either TAU (n = 15) or MACT+TAU (44). Treatment uptake was excellent, with all participants completing all six MACT sessions. The addition of MACT to TAU was associated with a significant decrease in the frequency and medical severity of non-suicidal self-injury, however the treatment groups did not differ in length of time to repeat or suicidal 4-Deoxyuridine web ideation (44). Notably, these findings contrast with the results of a previous trial of MACT, which used a sample of patients with a recent suicide attempt or episode of non-suicidal self-injury who did not necessarily have a PD diagnosis. This study failed to find any benefit of MAC.D not differ in terms of number of inpatient hospitalizations or emergency room visits, frequency of non-suicidal self-injury, psychiatric symptoms, interpersonal functioning and global functioning. Overall, CBT+TAU led to improved treatment outcomes in a handful of critical domains, when compared to a lowintensity TAU condition. A recent study by Cottraux and colleagues (41) found that CBT for BPD was superior to Rogerian supportive counseling (SC) for some outcomes. Outpatients with BPD were randomized to receive one year of weekly CBT (n = 33) or SC (n = 32). Treatment completers were assessed at 6, 12 and 24 months. Participants in CBT and SC did not differ in terms of depression, anxiety, dysfunctional cognitions, suicidal and self-damaging behavior or quality of life. However, CBT was associated with more rapid improvements in hopelessness and trait-level impulsivity, higher ratings of the therapeutic relationship and better treatment retention. CBT also was associated with greater improvements in patientand clinician-rated global symptom severity at the 24-month follow-up, which may suggest continued gains following treatment termination. However, this finding should be interpreted with caution because a high proportion of patients dropped out of treatment or were lost to follow-up, so an intent-to-treat analysis may have produced different results. Manual Assisted Cognitive Therapy (MACT) is another CBT package that was developed to address the need for a brief, cost-effective intervention for patients with BPD (and other Cluster B personality disorders) who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (42). MACT is a sixsession manualized treatment that combines traditional components of CBT (e.g., thought monitoring, psychoeducation) with elements of DBT (e.g., distress tolerance skills, functional analysis of incidents of non-suicidal self-injury). Treatment material is presented to the patient in the form of a workbook, which contains information about various skills and strategies for reducing episodes of self-damaging behavior. The therapist provides support as the patient completes the worksheets for content area MACT has been evaluated in a number of studies. In the preliminary study, patients with a cluster B PD and a recent episode of non-suicidal self-injury or suicide attempt were assigned to receive either TAU, which consisted of standard psychiatric care (n = 16) or MACT (n = 18). Even though patients received, on average, less than three of the six treatment sessions, patients in MACT demonstrated significant reductions in depression and inpatient days and a significant increase in future-oriented thinking at follow-up (42, 43). In a follow-up to this study,Psychiatr Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 1.Matusiewicz et al.Pageparticipants with BPD were randomized to receive either TAU (n = 15) or MACT+TAU (44). Treatment uptake was excellent, with all participants completing all six MACT sessions. The addition of MACT to TAU was associated with a significant decrease in the frequency and medical severity of non-suicidal self-injury, however the treatment groups did not differ in length of time to repeat or suicidal ideation (44). Notably, these findings contrast with the results of a previous trial of MACT, which used a sample of patients with a recent suicide attempt or episode of non-suicidal self-injury who did not necessarily have a PD diagnosis. This study failed to find any benefit of MAC.