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Sly updated. This composite image was displayed to the experimenter on a monitor. The experimenter was therefore able to watch this monitor while prompting to verify compliance with the prompts. The participant’s accuracy score increased from 53 to 88 in the first session with the pointing prompt (Dube et al., Table 5, Participant MAR). Another successful prompting technique was “within-stimulus” prompts, so-called because the prompt involved an internal feature of stimulus itself — as opposed to the pointing finger, which was next to the stimulus and would be termed an extra-stimulus prompt (cf., Schreibman, 1975). These within-stimulus prompts included sudden changes in size and/or color of the sample stimuli. The rationale was that a series of abrupt changes in salience difference between the sample stimuli may capture fixation and attention (Yantis, 1996). During the prompting sequence, the touchscreen was de-activated so that the participant’s touch did not terminate the sample observation period. When the prompting sequence was complete, the touchscreen became active and the trial proceeded. It is notable that the notion of using these types of motion-based prompts has been SKF-96365 (hydrochloride) supplement discussed as potentially useful within AAC, both at a general level for cuing (Jagaroo Wilkinson, 2008) and also for specific issues such as facilitating single switch scanning as a selection technique (McCarthy et al., 2006). In Dube et al. (2010), these within-stimulus prompts were effective in eliminating Olumacostat glasaretil web observing failures and increasing observing durations in four participants. In turn, there was also an immediate increase in accuracy scores for comparison selections to a range of 85 to 97 for three of these participants (Dube et al., Table 5, Participants DDA, WLN, STN). These results, along with those for the participant who received the pointing prompts, suggest that the earlier overselectivity was not due to some limit or deficiency in the ability to attend; these participants were clearly capable of performing the two-sample matching task with high accuracy. The problem was poorly organized and inadequate observing behavior — they were not looking at all of the sample stimuli. Results with one participant were different. The within-stimulus prompt intervention eliminated observing failures and increased observing durations to an average of 2.14 s per stimulus per trial, but accuracy improved very little, from 68 to 74 . The eye movement data showed that he was observing the stimuli, but the discrimination data (accuracy scores) indicated that he was not attending to them. Thus, interventions that improve observing behavior seem necessary but may not always be sufficient for the remediation of stimulus overselectivity. One characteristic of this participant’s observing topography was a large number of brief fixations; for example, the ratio of mean observing durations on trials with correct responses versus errors was greater for this participant than any other (Dube et al., Fig. 2, ParticipantNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAugment Altern Commun. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Dube and WilkinsonPageDTM). A final intervention with this participant addressed the issue of whether attending could be improved by imposing a contingency during within-stimulus prompting.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptTraining Broader Attention: Imposing Contingencie.Sly updated. This composite image was displayed to the experimenter on a monitor. The experimenter was therefore able to watch this monitor while prompting to verify compliance with the prompts. The participant’s accuracy score increased from 53 to 88 in the first session with the pointing prompt (Dube et al., Table 5, Participant MAR). Another successful prompting technique was “within-stimulus” prompts, so-called because the prompt involved an internal feature of stimulus itself — as opposed to the pointing finger, which was next to the stimulus and would be termed an extra-stimulus prompt (cf., Schreibman, 1975). These within-stimulus prompts included sudden changes in size and/or color of the sample stimuli. The rationale was that a series of abrupt changes in salience difference between the sample stimuli may capture fixation and attention (Yantis, 1996). During the prompting sequence, the touchscreen was de-activated so that the participant’s touch did not terminate the sample observation period. When the prompting sequence was complete, the touchscreen became active and the trial proceeded. It is notable that the notion of using these types of motion-based prompts has been discussed as potentially useful within AAC, both at a general level for cuing (Jagaroo Wilkinson, 2008) and also for specific issues such as facilitating single switch scanning as a selection technique (McCarthy et al., 2006). In Dube et al. (2010), these within-stimulus prompts were effective in eliminating observing failures and increasing observing durations in four participants. In turn, there was also an immediate increase in accuracy scores for comparison selections to a range of 85 to 97 for three of these participants (Dube et al., Table 5, Participants DDA, WLN, STN). These results, along with those for the participant who received the pointing prompts, suggest that the earlier overselectivity was not due to some limit or deficiency in the ability to attend; these participants were clearly capable of performing the two-sample matching task with high accuracy. The problem was poorly organized and inadequate observing behavior — they were not looking at all of the sample stimuli. Results with one participant were different. The within-stimulus prompt intervention eliminated observing failures and increased observing durations to an average of 2.14 s per stimulus per trial, but accuracy improved very little, from 68 to 74 . The eye movement data showed that he was observing the stimuli, but the discrimination data (accuracy scores) indicated that he was not attending to them. Thus, interventions that improve observing behavior seem necessary but may not always be sufficient for the remediation of stimulus overselectivity. One characteristic of this participant’s observing topography was a large number of brief fixations; for example, the ratio of mean observing durations on trials with correct responses versus errors was greater for this participant than any other (Dube et al., Fig. 2, ParticipantNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAugment Altern Commun. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Dube and WilkinsonPageDTM). A final intervention with this participant addressed the issue of whether attending could be improved by imposing a contingency during within-stimulus prompting.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptTraining Broader Attention: Imposing Contingencie.

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Author: haoyuan2014