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Rved variation, combining mammal phylogenetic distinctiveness, biological and ecological things.MethodsCategorization of alien mammals in South AfricaAlien species are grouped into 5 categories or Appendices (Information S1) depending on their invasion intensity ranging from Appendix 1 to Appendix five. Appendix 1 consists of “species listed as prohibited alien species”, that is definitely, all aliens introduced to South Africa which have been strongly detrimental owing to their higher invasion intensity (“strong invaders”; Hufbauer and Torchin 2007; Kumschick et al. 2011). We referred to these species as “prohibited species”. In contrast, other introduced species categorized as Appendix 2 do not show so far any invasion capacity and are therefore labeled as “species listed as permitted alien species” (“noninvasive aliens”). We referred to these species as “permitted species” as opposed to “prohibited species.” The third category, i.e., Appendix three labeled as “species listed as invasive species” consists of all species which are invasive but whose invasion intensity and impacts are much less than these of the Appendix 1 (“weak invaders”; Hufbauer and Torchin 2007). We referred to this category as “invasive species.” Appendices four and 5 contain, respectively, “species listed as identified to become invasive elsewhere within the world” and “species listed as potentially invasive elsewhere within the world.”Data collectionWe integrated within this study only species which might be alien in South Africa and present in PanTHERIA database (Jones2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley Sons Ltd.K. Yessoufou et al.Evolutionary History PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21347021 and Mammalian Invasionet al. 2009). From this worldwide database, we retrieved 38 life-history variables characterizing the ecology, biology, and societal life of mammals (Table S1). Within the current checklist of alien mammals of South Africa, you will find 20 species listed in Appendix 1, eight in Appendix 2 and 68 in Appendix 3 (Table S1; Data S1). There is absolutely no species listed in the moment in Appendix 4 and only a single species is at the moment beneath Appendix 5. For the purpose of data analysis, we replaced the species Castor spp. listed below Appendix 1 with Castor canadensis for which information are readily available in PanTHERIA. Also, all hybrids discovered in Appendices (e.g., Connochaetes gnou 9 C. taurinus taurinus) were removed from the evaluation as well as all species listed in Appendices but missing in the PanTHERIA database. We did not contain the single species listed under Appendix 5. In total, alien mammals analyzed within this study involve: Appendix 1 (prohibited = 19 species), Appendix 2 (permitted = 7 species), and Appendix three (invasive = 51 species).Information analysisWe converted invasive status of all alien species into binary traits: “prohibited” (Appendix 1) versus nonprohibited (Appendices 2 + three). We then tested for taxonomic selectivity in invasion intensity assessing whether or not there have been more or much less “prohibited” species in some taxa (families and buy SZL P1-41 orders) than expected by chance. For this objective, we estimated the proportion of prohibited species (observed proportion) in each loved ones and order. If n may be the total quantity of prohibited species inside the dataset, we generated in the dataset 1000 random assemblages of n species every single. For each in the random assemblages, we calculated the proportion of prohibited species (random proportion). The significance on the distinction amongst the observed and also the mean with the 1000 random proportions was tested depending on 95 self-confidence intervals.

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