Parentheses): mouse mAb anti–tubulin (1:1,000) and mouse mAb anti-acetylated -tubulin (1:1,000) have been from Sigma-Aldrich (Munich, Germany). Rabbit pAb antimyelin standard protein (MBP, 1:1,000) was a generous gift from Dr. Jean-Marie Matthieu (University Lausanne, Switzerland). Mouse mAb against the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA; 1:200). HRP-conjugated anti-mouse IgG (1:10,000) and anti-rabbit IgG (1:ten,000) have been from Jackson ImmunoResearch (West Grove, PA, USA).ImmunocytochemistryOligodendrocytes had been prepared as previously described . Briefly, primary cultures of glial cells had been ready from the brains of newborn Wistar rats and oligodendrocytes had been mechanically removed by shaking following 104 days in culture. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells had been re-plated (1.2×106 cells/6 cm dish) on poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated culture dishes (1.2×106 cells/6 cm dish) supplemented with glass cover slips (Fisher REG-1 alpha Protein Human Scientific, Schwerte, Germany). Cells have been grown in serum-free DMEM (Gibco/BRL, Grand Island, NY, USA), supplemented with two mM glutamine, 50 U/ml penicillin, 50 g/ml streptomycin, 5 g/ml insulin, 5 g/ml transferrin, and five ng/ml sodium selenite (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) at 10 CO2. Two hours right after seeding, when cells had been attached towards the culture dishes, medium was replaced and recombinant human -Syn (10 g/ml, prepared as previously described, ) was added. Cells were incubated for 3 days as indicated.Western blot analysisPrimary oligodendrocytes (1.2 106 cells/6 cm dish) have been cultured on PLL-coated glass coverslips in DMEM. Immediately after washing with PBS, cells have been fixed and permeabilized with ice-cold methanol for 7 min. Cells had been washed 3 instances with PBS and then incubated overnight at 4 with the following primary antibodies: mouse mAb anti-NG2 (1:200), mouse mAb anti–tubulin (1:250), mouse mAb antiacetylated -tubulin (1:250), rabbit pAb PTH1R Protein Human anti-myelin simple protein (MBP; 1:200). Immediately after washing with PBS, cells have been incubated for 1 h with Dylight 594-conjugated (1:500), Dylight 488-conjugated (1:500), or Dylight 350-conjugated (1:100) goat secondary antibodies (Thermo Scientific), washed with PBS, and mounted. Nuclei were stained by 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; 1.5 g/ml) included in the mounting medium (Vectashield, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA). Fluorescent labeling was studied making use of a Zeiss epifluorescence microscope (Oberkochen, Germany) equipped with a digital camera applying a planneofluar objective (x100). All experiments were carried out at the least three times with comparable final results.Myelin purification from mouse brains and analysesCellular monolayers of control and treated cells had been washed once with PBS, scraped off in sample buffer containing 1 SDS, and boiled for ten min. Protein content material within the samples was determined as outlined by the protocol of Neuhoff, Philipp, Zimmer and Mesecke . Total cellular extracts (100 g protein per lane) were separated by one-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) making use of 8.751.25 polyacrylamide gels and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Whatman, Dassel, Germany; 0.two m). The blots were saturated with TBS (20 mM Tris Cl, 136.8 mM NaCl, pH 7.five) containing 5 dry milk and incubated with all the indicated antibodies overnight at 4 . Following washing with TBS-T (TBS with 0.1 v/v Tween 20), incubation with HRP-conjugated anti-mouse (1:10,000) or anti-rabbit (1:10,000) antibody was carried out for 1 h at roo.