Nd SOD2 of 16 ten showed when in comparison with untreated samples at virtually all the tested and HSP70, on the other hand, did not show any relevant variatio a significant increase, when when compared with untreated samples at virtually each of the tested the untreated manage. Taking other hand, didthese benefits indicate that PS concentrations. GSTP1 and HSP70, around the collectively, not show any relevant Hexythiazox Description variations when compared stress-related genes’ expression under long-term the oxidative to the untreated handle. Taking with each other, these benefits indicate that expPSNPs substantially alter the oxidative stress-related genes’ expression under long-term exposure regimes.Figure 6. Study of Caco-2 cells’ response just after 24 h and 8 weeks of PSNPs exposure using Real-Time RT-PCR. The percentage for every single compared Figure 6. Study of of expression mean response after 24 hdose and analyzed by per Caco-2 cells’ gene is showntreatment to untreated controls, the and 8 weeks of PSNPs dose and gene. Information are presented as SEM for each and every Time RT-PCR. 0.05, percentage 0.001. student’s t-test. p The p 0.01, p of expression for each gene is shown comptrols,Genotoxic and and gene. Information are presented as imply SEM for each treatm three.6. per dose Oxidative DNA Harm by the student’s t-test. p 0.05, p 0.01, p 0.001. PSNPs was examThe prospective genotoxic effect of short- and long-term exposures toined using the comet assay to detect single and double-strand breaks, as well as oxidative DNA harm. The comet assay revealed low levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA dam3.6. Genotoxic and Oxidative DNA Damage Only the 0.26 /cm2 -treated age, each for cells Oxprenolol (hydrochloride) Autophagy exposed to PSNPs for 24 h and 8 weeks. sample soon after eight weeks of exposure showed a considerable raise inside the genotoxic damage The possible genotoxic impact of short- and long-term exposu observed when when compared with the untreated cells (Figure 7A). The slight variations in the genotoxic harm the comet assay to detect single considerably unique amined using observed soon after the short-term exposure have been notand double-strand br from these noticed in the manage group. As for the oxidative DNA damage (Figure 7B), Caco-2 tive DNA damage.the highest PSNPs concentration presented anlevels of genotox cells exposed for 24 h towards the comet assay revealed low increased level of damage each for cells exposed to PSNPs samples. Having said that, these harm, when in comparison to that discovered in unfavorable control for 24 h and eight weeks. variations did not attain statistical significance. Summarizing, these benefits show that cells treated to PSNPs forafter 8h weeks ofdo not boost their levels ofa significant inc exposed sample both 24 and eight weeks exposure showed genotoxic and oxidative observed damage DNA damage. when in comparison with the untreated cells (Figure 7Ain the genotoxic harm observed after the short-term exposure distinct from those observed within the handle group. As for the oxidative 7B), Caco-2 cells exposed for 24 h for the highest PSNPs concentr creased degree of damage when in comparison to that found in negative ever, these variations didn’t attain statistical significance. Summ show that cells exposed to PSNPs for both 24 h and 8 weeks do not genotoxic and oxidative DNA harm.Biomolecules 2021, 11, x FOR PEER Assessment Biomolecules 2021, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEWBiomolecules 2021, 11,11 of 16 11 of11 ofFigure 7. Genotoxic (A) and oxidative (B) DNA damage in Caco-2 cells right after 24 h and eight weeks of PSNPs exposure, as evidenced by comet assay. Information represent the p.